The Blackfeet Tribe

Report
Nisitapi
The Real People
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The Blackfeet Tribe consists of three bands.
The Blackfoot (Siksika)
The Blood (Kainai)
The Peigan (Pikuni)
The only band that resides in the United
States of America is the Southern Peigan.
All other bands reside in Canada.
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old
North Trail: Life, Legends, and
Religion of the Blackfeet Indians.
Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press
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The most northern band of the tribe.
Running Rabbit (1900)
Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet:
Raiders of the Northwestern
Plains. Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press
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The Blood name was given to the band by the
fur traders.
Kainai means Many Chiefs.
Bird Rattler (1916)
Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet:
Raiders of the Northwestern
Plains. Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press
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The band split into the Northern Pikuni and
Southern Pikuni due to the US/Canada
border.
White Calf (1896)
Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet:
Raiders of the Northwestern
Plains. Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press
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The Blackfeet believe they have lived since time
immemorial to the present.
Genetics suggests the Blackfeet people migrated
over the Bering Strait land bridge.
Archeology has evidence of people being in the
Blackfeet Territory at the end of the ice age
15,000 BP.
Other evidence indicates the people are from
11,500 BP or the end of the Llano period and the
start of the Folsom period which would be the
beginning of the dog days for the Blackfeet.
Citations on the following slides
Roberts, D.F., Fujiki, N. and
Torizuka, N. (1992). Isolation,
Migration and Health. 33rd
Symposium Volume of the Society
for Study of Human Biology.
Blood Type A: Central and Eastern Europe
 Type A is common in Central and Eastern Europe. In
countries such as Austria, Denmark, Norway, and
Switzerland, about 45-50% of the population have
this blood type. The highest frequencies are found in
small, unrelated populations. For example, about 80%
of the Blackfoot Indians of Montana have blood type
A.
 This suggests the Blackfeet’s immemorial bloodlines
migrated out of East Africa and went east to Asia then
over the Bering Strait.
 For more information check out:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2264/#ch2.1.
4Ch.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo
ks/NBK2264/#ch2.1.4Ch.
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15,000 BP at the end of the ice age
Reeves conducted archeological digs
throughout Southern Alberta and Glacier
National Park and found evidence of
occupancy that dates back to the end of the
last Ice Age.
11,500 BP at the start of the Folsom period.
Begley suggests that the first Americans
occupied the area where the Blackfeet are
currently at.
Reeves, B. O. K. (2001). Our
Mountains Are Our Pillows.
Montana: Glacier National Park.
Begley, S. (1999). The First
Americans. Newsweek (Atlantic
Edition), 133(23), 58.
The arrowheads found in the
original homeland of the
Blackfeet were dated back from
500-5,000 BP. All the arrowheads
are consistent with the Blackfeet.
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http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfal
ls/since-time-immemorial.htm
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Language experts suggested that the
Blackfeet language and tribe originated north
of the Great Lakes region because of
phonemic ties they made between the
Blackfeet language and the Algonquin
language.
They believe the language and tribe migrated
to the west from the Great Lakes region until
they found the land they currently occupy.
This is a misconception.
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/
native/tribes/blackfeet/pastpreset
.htm
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Ives Goddard is the leading Algonquin language
expert and employed at the Smithsonian
Institute.
Goddard believes, after his extensive research on
the topic, that the language originated with the
Blackfeet tribe around the Montana/Alberta area
8,000 BP and migrated in a West-to-East fashion
to the Great Lakes dropping off subsets along the
way.
The Blackfeet language is the Proto-language for
the Algonquin language which is why the
languages are distinctly different.
Goddard, I. (1994). The West-to-
East Cline in Algonquian
Dialectology. Ottawa: Carleton
University.
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Evidence (bison bones) suggests that the
Blackfeet have been using this buffalo jump
from about 6,000-3,000 BP.
http://www.history.alberta.ca/hea
dsmashedin/default.aspx
http://www.history.alberta.ca/hea
dsmashedin/default.aspx
http://www.history.alberta.ca/hea
dsmashedin/default.aspx
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The Blackfeet did not migrate westward from
the Great Lakes area.
The Blackfeet lived from the North
Saskatchewan River (north) to the Yellowstone
River (south) and from the Continental Divide
(west) to the headwaters of the Missouri River
(east).
Now, the tribe lives on reserved lands that are
only a fraction of the original homeland.
Clark, E. E. (1954). Indian Legends
of the Northern Rockies.
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma
Press
www.bing.com/images/search?q=
the+blackfoot+indian+tribe&qpvt
=the+blackfoot+indian+tribe
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The Blackfeet have left a culture based upon
principles of hard work, self motivation,
responsibility to become a positive role
model, language, ceremonies (sun dance),
customs (powwow, sweats), art/artwork,
calendar sticks, buckskin timelines, shelters,
traditional plant use knowledge, traditional
games, hunting techniques, and buffalo
jumps, etc.
http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i
ndex.php?option=com_content&vi
ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18
http://fineartamerica.com/feature
d/blackfeet-pow-wow-01-ausrapaulauskaite.html
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The Blackfeet produced and created
everything they needed that didn’t require a
plug in or the use of electricity that we have
today.
http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoo
t/EN/flash/index.htm
http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoo
t/EN/flash/index.htm
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http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoot/EN/flash/
index.htm
This website gives viewers an opportunity to
understand many aspects of the Blackfeet
ways of life.
“How We Lived with the Buffalo” provides
simulations of buffalo jumps, camp life, uses
of the buffalo, etc.
http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoo
t/EN/flash/index.htm
Museum of the Plains Indians,
Browning, MT
Museum of the Plains Indians,
Browning, MT
Museum of the Plains Indians,
Browning, MT
Museum of the Plains Indians,
Browning, MT
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The Blackfeet were pedestrian in the dog
days.
At the beginning 1730, the Blackfeet began
to acquire horses and became equestrian.
Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet:
Raiders of the Northwestern
Plains. Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press
http://www.wwu.edu/skywise/leg
ends.html
http://homepage.eircom.net/~pha
ran/shelter2.html
http://homepage.eircom.net/~pha
ran/shelter2.html
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The Blackfeet filled their leisure time with
traditional games, making tools, weapons,
telling stories, discussing history, playing
with dogs, and later on playing with horses.
Ewers, J. C. (1958). The Blackfeet:
Raiders of the Northwestern
Plains. Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old
North Trail: Life, Legends, and
Religion of the Blackfeet Indians.
Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press
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Stick game
http://wisdomoftheelders.org/201
1/08/01/program-208-tribalrhythms/
Museum of the Plains Indians,
Browning, MT
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old
North Trail: Life, Legends, and
Religion of the Blackfeet Indians.
Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia
.com/blackfoot-mythology/
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old
North Trail: Life, Legends, and
Religion of the Blackfeet Indians.
Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ms
ulibrary/3060832615
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The Blackfeet Tribe organized themselves
into family and extended family, bands, and
tribe. They also developed societies known
for wisdom and leadership.
The men and women each had a role to play
in camp. The men hunted and protected while
the women took care of the lodges and
children.
Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S.
(2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary,
Alberta: University of Calgary Press
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The Blackfeet men centered on hunting and
warfare. They were the role models for the
boys.
Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S.
(2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary,
Alberta: University of Calgary Press
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The Blackfeet women centered on taking care
of the lodge and the children.
They pitch the camp, tan the hides, dry meat,
cook, etc.
Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S.
(2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary,
Alberta: University of Calgary Press
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia
.com/blackfoot-mythology
http://www.glenbow.org/blackfoo
t/EN/flash/index.htm
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia
.com/blackfoot-mythology
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The Blackfeet used story hides, story sticks,
winter counts, etc.
They also used sodalities of age grade cohorts
that were the first societies of a class system that
was dependent upon entering and being a
member of non-kinship societies.
Upon graduation from the sodality societies, the
following societies began with the mosquitoes,
and by attaining the knowledge of present
sodality level, was the way boys could purchase
their way to next level of sodality or society.
Thus, a culture based upon choosing to become
a hardworking, self motivated, responsible,
positive role model.
http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfal
ls/since-time-immemorial.htm
http://www.trailtribes.org/greatfal
ls/since-time-immemorial.htm
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia
.com/blackfoot-mythology/
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The Blackfeet controlled their bands through
a level of society that was an option for
young men at that age, known as the Crazy
Dogs Society, and it was the closest thing to a
police or security in the camp.
The band was governed by a leader or chief
that was the final say in the various aspects
of the camp such as movement, spiritual,
military, personal conflicts, etc.
Crowshoe, R. & Manneschmidt, S.
(2002). Akak'stiman. Calgary,
Alberta: University of Calgary Press
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Some of the Blackfeet’s customs included the
Sun dance, sweats, powwows, drumming,
singing, and dancing, bundles, prayers,
smudge, etc.
The Blackfeet believed the Sun is the Creator.
Napi is a disciple of the Sun and created what
we see today.
Bullchild, P. (1985). The Sun Came
Down: The history of the World as
My Blackfeet Elders Told It. New
York, NY: Harper & Row
McClintock, W. (1999). The Old
North Trail: Life, Legends, and
Religion of the Blackfeet Indians.
Nebraska: University of Nebraska
Press
http://arc.lib.montana.edu/schult
z-0010/item/151
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The Blackfeet Tribe was affected by all
aspects involving European fur traders and
establishments of military forts.
Lowen, J. W. (1995). Lies my
teacher told me: Everything your
American history textbook got
wrong. New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster
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The Blackfeet had to deal with hardships that
included diseases, guns, alcohol,
assimilation, boarding schools, starvation,
and reservations.
Lowen, J. W. (1995). Lies my
teacher told me: Everything your
American history textbook got
wrong. New York, NY: Simon &
Schuster
http://clevelandhota.blogspot.com
/2010/01/assimilation-of-nativeamericans.html
http://wwwlib.ou.edu/locations/docs/westhis
t/Campbell/black.html
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The Blackfeet Tribe had to succumb,
assimilate, adapt, and overcome in order to
survive to today.
http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i
ndex.php?option=com_content&vi
ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18
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Check out the Blackfeet Nations websites for
each band for current events:
http://siksikanation.com/
http://bloodtribe.drupalgardens.com/
http://www.blackfeetnation.com/index.php?o
ption=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemi
d=18
http://siksikanation.com/
http://bloodtribe.drupalgardens.c
om/
http://www.blackfeetnation.com/i
ndex.php?option=com_content&vi
ew=article&id=6&Itemid=18

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