Reference ontologies for manufacturing

Report
Reference ontologies for
manufacturing
R Young, N Hastilow, M Imran, N Chungoora
Z Usman and A-F Cutting-Decelle
Bob Young - [email protected]
Outline
• Background - lots of useful standards
• Need for multiple standards across
manufacturing
• Problems in interoperability across standards
• The IMKS project and the use of formal
semantics
• Towards a reference ontology for manufacture
ICT in Manufacturing – background to our work at
Loughborough University
Design for Manufacture
Concurrent Engineering
Key areas:
• Modelling Manufacturing
Capability
• Product Lifecycle Management
• Knowledge Sharing and Reuse
Global
Manufacture
Information
& Knowledge
Infrastructures
for
Manufacture
• Integration and Interoperability
Manufacturing Industries:
• Aerospace
• Automotive
• Machine tools
Manufacturing Planning
• Electrical machines
Supply Chain Capability
• Injection moulding
• Food
Lots of useful standards
• Focus mainly on ISO TC 184 SC4 – “Industrial data”
• Examples of useful standards
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ISO 10303-1 STEP overview
ISO 10303-224 machining features
ISO 10303-239 Product Lifecycle Support
ISO 13584 Parts Library
ISO 15531 MANDATE
ISO 18629 PSL
………………..
ISO10303AP239PLCS
STEP-ISO
10303
STEP NC
ISO 10303
ISO 13584
PLIB
ISO13399ISO 18629PSL
Cutting Tool
Standard
STEP-ISO 10303-AP224
Feature Based
Manufacturing
ISO 15531
MANDATE
Issues in using multiple ISO Standards
for information sharing
• Multiple Interpretations of nominally the
same concept
• Multiple definitions of the same term
Example: multiple interpretations
e.g.: Product definition from (ISO 10303_1)
”a thing or substance produced by a natural or artificial process”
from PRODUCT DEFINITION (ISO 10303-41)
(uses definition from ISO 10303-1)
from PLCS Part-439 (ISO 10303-439)
(uses definition from ISO 10303-1)
ENTITY Product
ABSTRACT SUPERTYPE OF (ONEOF (Breakdown,
Breakdown_element,
Document,
Interface_connector,
Interface_specification,
Part,
Requirement,
Slot));
id : STRING;
name : STRING;
description : OPTIONAL STRING;
END_ENTITY;
Multiple definitions for the same term
Example: Part
from MACHINING FEATURE (ISO 10303_224)
from PLIB (ISO 13584_1)
“A Part is a material or
functional element that is
intended to constitute a
component of different
products”
“A Part is the physical item which is intended to be
produced through the manufacturing process. Each
Part may be one of the following:
Manufactured_assembly, or Single_piece_part.
The data associated with a Part are the following:
— manufacture_authorization;
— manufactured_by_organization;
— manufactured_by_person;
— owned_by_organization;
— owned_by_person;
— part_description;
— part_id;
— part_name;
— part_revision_id;
— physical_form;
— property_characteristics;
— quantity_ordered;
— security_classification.”
Problem – multiple standards with
multiple semantics
• Resource (ISO 15531-1; ISO 18629-1): Any device, tool and
means, except raw material and final product components,
at the disposal of the enterprise to produce goods or
services. This definition includes ISO 10303-49 definition.
• Resource (ISO 10303-49): Something that may be described
in terms of a behavior, a capability, or a performance
measure that is pertinent to the process.
• Resource (ISO 15704): An enterprise entity that provides
some or all of the capabilities required by the execution of
an enterprise activity and/or business process.
Michel, J.J., 2005. Terminology extracted from some manufacturing and modelling related
standards. CEN/TC 310 N1119R2.
SC4 recognise need for formal ontologies
I
ndustrial
D
ata
I
ntegrated
O
ntologies and
M
ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture
odels
Rotterdam 2009-11-13
Current ISO 10303 approach
domain knowledge in AAM
process
process
process
components
components
components
domain knowledge
definitionsofofthe
the
definitions
concepts
ARM
schemas
concepts
analyse scope
mapping
analysis information
requirements
information
information
information
flows
flows
flows
datamodel
model
data
AIM/MIM
schemas
schemas
schemas
defines the data about
the concepts needed to
fulfil the information
requirements
domain knowledge as reference data
referencedata
data
reference
reference data
datamodel
model
data
implementation
schemas
schemas
specification
ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture
Rotterdam 2009-11-13
A part of the IDIOM approach
domain knowledge
process
process
process
components
components
components
domain knowledge
analyse scope
analysis information
requirements
information
information
information
flows
flows
flows
datamodel
model
data
data
model
schemas
schemas
schemas
defines the data about
the concepts needed to
fulfil the information
requirements
definitionsofofthe
the
definitions
definitions
of the
concepts
concepts
concepts
knowledgeof
the
knowledge
knowledge
ofofthe
the
concepts
concepts
concepts
(an ontology)
referencedata
data
reference
reference data
datamodel
model
data
implementation
schemas
schemas
specification
ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture
Rotterdam 2009-11-13
Concept underlying a Manufacturing Reference Ontology
(from IMKS)
Common
Concepts
Formally defined coreconcepts i.e. using logic
statements
Specialised
domain
concepts
Specialised
domain
Concepts
Common
KB
Specialised
KB
Knowledge
Verification
Specialised
KB
Formal definitions using a Common
Logic base - KFL
(=> (Core.Resource ?r)
(exists (?c)
(and (Core.Capability ?c)
(Core.hasCapability ?r ?c))))
:IC soft "Every resource may have some capability."
(=> (Core.Resource ?r)
(exists (?e)
(and (Core.Enterprise ?e)
(Core.isHeldBy ?r ?e))))
:IC soft "Every resource may be held by some enterprise."
(=> (Core.Resource ?r)
(exists (?p)
(and (Core.Process ?p)
(Core.isUsedBy ?r ?p))))
:IC soft "Every resource may be used by some process."
•Cannot be
misinterpreted
•Can be used to
build new
‘specialisations’
to suit specific
requirements
•Inferences can
be made based
on the logic
The level of
compliance of new
systems or new
system versions can
be checked
Time
Ontology
Specialisation
Reference ontology aspects explored
to date
• Design for machining
• Design for assembly
• Interoperability compliance across
manufacturing systems
The IMKS project developed a proof of concept formal ontology related
to sharing knowledge across product design and machining
The concept extended across design for assembly and assembly planning
The concept extended to manufacturing systems interoperability
Formalisms specified in KFL and exploited
in HIGHFLEET’s XKS environment
Each of the sets of concepts illustrated in these
figures have been formally specified in KFL
They have been implemented and used in
knowledge sharing and interoperability
validation experiments.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(=> (Feature ?f)
(exists(?AOI)
(and (AttributeOfInterest
?AOI)
(hasAttributeOfInterest ?f
?AOI))))
:IC hard "Every feature has an
Attribute of Interest
(=> (FormFeature ?ffeature)
(exists (?form)
(and (Form ?form)
(FormFeature
?ffeature)
(hasAttributeOfInterest ?ffeature
?form))))
:IC hard "A Form exist as an
Attribute of Interest for a
FormFeature”
An Example - Feature
Specialisations in
Common Logic
(=> (DesignFeature ?df)
((exists(?function)
(and (Function ?function)
(hasAttributeOfInterest ?df
?function)))))
:IC hard "A function exists for a
DesignFeature"
(=> (ProductionFeature ?Turningf)
(exists (?mfgmethod)
(and (ManufacturingMethod
?manufacturingmethod)
(hasAttributeOfInterest ?Turningf
?mfgmethod))))
:IC hard "ManufacturingMethod exists for
every Productionfeature"
The FLEXINET Concept – a new FP7 FoF
project in negotiation
Conclusions
• The approach is showing significant potential
• There is much still to be done
• The approach we have taken is pragmatic
– There will be a need at some point for an agreed set of
underlying foundation concepts
– As formal semantic languages develop there will be a
need for them to remain compatible
• There will be a balance to be found between the benefits of
enabling interoperability and the costs and constraints of
designing formally constrained semantic systems

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