Introduction & overview Rohan Samarajiva Policy windows • “Unpredictable openings in the policy process that create the possibility for influence over the direction and outcome of that process.” • “These windows sometimes open regularly (e.g., cabinet shuffles and budget speeches), but who makes successful use of them or not is a matter of chance and skill.” – Kingdon, John W. 1995. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies, 2nd ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2 A POLICY WINDOW IS ABOUT TO OPEN When broadband decided an election: Australia 2010 • Hung Parliament • Three independents decided who won • One each went to contending parties; third went to Labor solely on basis of broadband policies broadband decided who formed the government Internet/broadband continued as election issue: Australia Liberal position 2013 IS THIS THE CASE IN INDIA, 2014? Relevant excerpts from Aam Aadmi Party manifesto • Creating world-class infrastructure, in both urban and rural areas, for ensuring a dynamic economy; participation of private sector in infrastructure development. • We will promote the use of information technology to promote transparency and reduce corruption in government functioning. • Use technology and e-governance to extensively administer all government services. Indian National Congress • The Indian National Congress will give a renewed thrust to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Under the Indian National Congress’s leadership, the country is moving towards transformation through ‘Democratisation of Information’. Efforts are underway to use ICT tools to herald transparency, efficiency . . . In fields such as agriculture, financial services, commerce, education and health, this ICT-led Democratisation of Information is revolutionising service delivery, citizen interface and accountability through innovative practices. New tools under this will be the biggest game changer for bringing about larger systems reform. • The Indian National Congress will connect all 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats with high-speed broadband connectivity within 18 months, with a view of improving public delivery mechanism. The vision is to transform governance and service delivery in areas such as health, education and agriculture, and unleash local innovation capacity. Bharatiya Janata Party • BJP aims to nurture a Digital India - making every household and every individual digitally empowered. Information Technology has made it possible to make information and services reach to the ordinary men and women even in remote areas, easily and effectively. Availability of information is the key to empowerment of the stakeholders. This also reduces the scope for discretion and manipulation. • We will: – focus on increasing the penetration and usage of broadband across the country. Deployment of broadband in every village would be a thrust area. – leverage technology for e-Governance and engage proactively with the people through social media for participative governance and effective public grievance redressal mechanism. Selected excerpts • Would set up Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) and virtual classrooms to make it convenient for working class people and housewives to further their knowledge and qualifications. • Use technology to reduce the burden of books on children. Make all institutions and schools e-enabled in a phased manner. Digital learning and training to be used extensively. • Pursue a mission mode project under the 'National Rural Internet and Technology Mission' for use of telemedicine and mobile healthcare for rural healthcare delivery; use of IT for agriculture for real-time information; Self Help Groups; retail trade and SMEs; and rural entrepreneurs, etc. • Initiate a National e-Governance Plan to cover every Government office from the centre to the panchayats. The 'E-Gram, Vishwa Gram' scheme in Gujarat to be implemented nationwide. • All parties want to use e-based services • All agree e-connectivity is essential • Can they assume broadband will be available to all? • After the election, policy window will open for deciding best ways to deliver adequate e connectivity to 1.2 billion people MORE POLICY THAN POLITICS, POSSIBLY “Evidence” will be in demand • Other country experiences, e.g., – Broadband initiatives from Australia, Malaysia, etc. – Mexico’s plan for common use of 700MHz band spectrum • Policy relevant research from India, e.g., – App economy Just-in-time, when you need it How developed • Using LIRNEasia expertise and Ford Foundation support • Improved through expert input (e.g., at Expert Forum on 12 March 2014 in New Delhi) – Arvind Kumar (Advisor, Networks, Spectrum and Licensing Division, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) – Jaipal Singh Tomar (Joint Advisor, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) – Sanjeev Banzal (Advisor Networks, Spectrum & Licensing, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) – Rajendra Kumar (Joint-Secretary (e-Gov), Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Govt. of India) – K. K. Minocha (Deputy Director General (Broadband) Universal Service Obligation Fund) – Anil Bhargava (Director Operations, Bharat Broadband Network Limited) – Bijoyananda Mishra (Chief General Manager (Tech & Mktg) Bharat Broadband Network Limited) – Bukhari Yahya (Head Broadband Strategy, Malaysian Communication and Media Commission) – Mohd Faizal Nizam (Malaysian Communication and Media Commission) – Reg Coutts (Member Australian Communications and Media Authority) – Satyen Gupta (Secretary General, NGN Forum, India) – Payal Malik (Competition Commission of India) – Harishankar Thayyil Jagadeesh (Economist, Competition Commission India) – Sunil Abraham (Executive Director, Centre for Internet and Society) – Tushar Kanti Roy (Director, Business Development, Opterna) – Ravina Aggarwal (Program Officer for Media Access and Rights, Ford Foundation) – Deepak Maheshwari (Public Policy Professional) – Martin Cave (Deputy Chairman, Competition Commission, UK) – Ernesto Flores (Associate Researcher, Centro de Investigacion y Docenia Economicas - CIDE, Mexico) – Rajat Kathuria (Director and Chief Executive at Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)) – Sugandha Srivastav (Junior Consultant for the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations ICRIER) – Vignesh Illavarasan (Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) – Ibrahim Kholilul Rohman (Research Fellow, European Commission Joint Research Centre) – Rohan Samarajiva (Chair, LIRNEasia) – Sabina Fernando (Research Fellow, LIRNEasia) – Roshanthi Lucas Gunaratne (Research Manager, LIRNEasia) DYNAMIC PROCESS. PRODUCTION IS ALSO DISSEMINATION.