Session Title - Liquid Mercury Solutions

Report
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Real World Claims in ADFS and
SharePoint 2010 (Sat-S2C-104)
Architect – Level 500
Thomas “Doc” Carpe
Liquid Mercury Solutions
(Colossus Consulting)
www.liquidmercurysolutions.com
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Thank you for being a part of the first
SharePoint Saturday conference
• Please turn off all electronic devices or set them to vibrate.
• If you must take a phone call, please do so in the hall so as not
to disturb others.
• Open wireless access is available at SSID: SPSTC2011
• Feel free to “tweet and blog” during the session
• Thanks to our Diamond and Platinum Sponsors:
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Introduction
About Me
• 15 years with MS products: Commerce Server, Site Server,
Office Web Services, CMS, BizTalk, and SharePoint 2001-2010
• MCPD SharePoint 2010, MCTS MOSS 2007
• @thomascarpe on Twitter
My Company
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Est. 2005, Baltimore, MD
MS Gold Partner (since 2010)
SharePoint specialists, dev focus
10 staff, 6 technical, growing
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
What do I mean by
“Real World Claims”?
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Claims Based Authentication
I’m not talking about just a development box
Practical application, not just theory
Refers to promises made,
not just the technical definition
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Goals
• Deepen your awareness and understanding
– What’s possible?
– What to beware?
• Whatever it may seem, I don’t want to scare
you away from ADFS or Claims Based Auth.
– Despite obstacles, there is much to be gained
– What are the opportunities?
• Let’s Share and Have Some Fun!
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
What I’m Not Covering
• Ground well covered elsewhere
– What’s Claims, what’s it for?
– How to configure ADFS and SharePoint
• I have 120+ pages of walkthroughs and docs(!)
• If you want details, buy my book read my blog
– Pure AD to AD federation
• Things too complicated for just an hour
– We’re not gonna develop code “live” here today
– Configuring ADFS for Office 365 or Azure
– ADFS farm configuration
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
SP+ADFS: Major Pain Points
• Setup is complex and prone to human error
– Even a simple ADFS / SharePoint setup is 60+ manual steps
– Many assumptions that underlying infrastructure is correct
– Client requirements drive every install to be unique
• Tools are not very well developed
– Some community tools, all very new
– Code solutions and PowerShell exist
• errors, caveats, limits
• best code would combine good from several sources
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
SP+ADFS: Major Pain Points
• Many configuration patterns are still unproven
– So far, [mostly] only adopted by very large organizations
– Has yet to catch on in mainstream
– Less variety + less testing = less support
• Troubleshooting is difficult
– One symptom can have myriad causes
– Error messages aren't very informative
• Even when you get it working, you’re not done
– Functional shortcomings
– Business challenges
Real World Claims in ADFS and SharePoint 2010
COMMON PROBLEMS &
APPROACHES
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
The Essential Checklist
1. Checked that SharePoint is SP1 with June CU Refresh?
Previous versions of SharePoint had various issues.
2. Certificates in ADFS incorrect/unsupported settings?
Just because it let you add them in ADFS does not make
them valid. Restart ADFS service and check the event log for
event 133.
3. All your certificates in good order – not expired?
If you don't have good PKI, ADFS and claims aren't going to
work.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
The Essential Checklist
4. Does ADFS service account have access to private keys?
Restart ADFS service and check the event log. This one also
causes event 133. Check the ACLs using certificate manager.
5. Accounted for all AAMs - even in extended web apps?
Each one represents a possible Relying Party – or at least a
realm identifier – that’s needed.
6. Does every Provider Realm identifier and URL – including
the default realm identifier – have a corresponding RP in
ADFS with matching realm identifier and endpoint URL?
This is fertile ground for typos or just plain missing entries.
Map them out and be certain.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Famous Last Words…
“Klaatu Barada Nnn..
Necktie, Neckturn,
Nickel. It's an "N"
word, it's definitely
an "N" word!
Klaatu... Barada...
N*cough*rrmmffnn
mm”
"Well maybe I
didn't say every
single tiny little
syllable, but yeah,
I said them.
Basically.“
-Bruce Campbell
as Ash
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Trouble on the Road Ahead?
• When the user logs in, does the DNS name for
SharePoint match the DNS name of the RP endpoint
URL exactly?
Some (though not all) configurations where the RP
returns the user to a different URL than they left
from can result in cookie looping or other problems.
• Do your ADFS and SharePoint live in different DNS
domains?
Done properly this shouldn’t be a problem, but
complex configurations like this often lead to issues.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Trouble on the Road Ahead?
• Is Kerberos working on the ADFS web site?
Chances are if Kerberos isn’t working, ADFS will likely
give you issues – if not now then eventually.
• Load balancer in front of SharePoint or ADFS?
A load balanced configuration increases the chances that the
user will return to a different SharePoint machine than they
left, or that when one machine goes down they’ll be
redirected to another one. Improper load balancer
configuration can cause intermittent authentication problems,
and absolutely makes troubleshooting anything an order of
magnitude more difficult.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Specific Configuration Issues / Solutions
• For “TrustedMissingIdentityClaimSource”:
– Does the RP pass through all 3 required claims?
– If you have an IdP besides AD, is ADFS configured to pass the 3 claims
*out* of it as well?
– Is the Trusted ID Provider in SharePoint configured to accept them by
the same names?
• For “The root of the certificate chain is not a trusted
root authority”:
– Did you add the whole chain of authority as Trusted Root Authority in
SharePoint?
– Can you confirm that the cert used by the SharePoint’s Trusted
Identity Provider is one of the ones you added to Trusted Root
Authority collection?
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Specific Configuration Issues / Solutions
• For error ID4014:
– Does the RP’s encryption setting match the settings in the
SharePoint web application’s configuration file?
• For error ID1024 & ID1039:
– Did you give the SharePoint application pool rights to
*SharePoint’s* token encryption certificate private key?
– If you’re sure you did, you may need to give IIS_IUSRS
rights to “C:\Users\All
Users\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\MachineKeys” folder - or
hack ACLs for certificates.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Custom WIF Provider Code Problems
• Wrong .NET Framework version (WIF should usually be 4.0)
• CryptographicException
– incorrect “Load User Profile” application pool setting (should be true)
– insufficient file system ACLs; use auditing or filemon
• Failure to provide all required claims
– Optional claim that’s actually required by SharePoint
• E-mail where the provider does not give you an e-mail
• Roles when the user is not in any groups; set a default
– Calling a claim by the wrong schema URL
• Malformed or incorrect response URL
– HTTP 503: Failed to translate/map the Issuer URI
– HTTP 405: Missing a solidus (/) at the end
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #1
Incompatible Certificate Requests
• Limited configuration choices
– Only use “MS DH SChannel” and “MS RSA SChannel” crypto providers
– SHA-1 and SHA-256 hashes supported – not SHA-384 or SHA-512
• Private keys must be exportable
• On Windows Certificate Authority
– Best to use only Windows 2003 Server compatible templates
– Specific Windows Server 2008 templates *may* work, too much
chance they won’t
• Best Practice: Test certs ASAP by restarting ADFS service
– Any issues will produce event 133 right away
– Rush ahead without testing at your own risk!
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #2
The Dreaded Cookie Looping Issue = Can't Log In
• Lots of causes, few are easy to rule out
• Things you *can* check
– SharePoint is old - SP1 + June CU Refresh
– The AAM URL that matches your RP realm identifier is not
your Public URL for that zone
– RP realm identifiers missing or wrong in either SP or ADFS
– Ensure TokenLifetime in ADFS >=
LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow in SharePoint STS
– There’s an underscore in the SharePoint URL
O Rly? Yea Rly.
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #2
The Dreaded Cookie Looping Issue (cont.)
• Things that are more difficult to prove
– SSO and cookie handler settings: should domain attribute be added to
ADFS or SP?
– Improperly configured NLB on multi-server ADFS and/or SharePoint
• DNS or IP address shifts happening behind the scenes
• Are we returning to a different SharePoint server than the one that sent us to
ADFS?
– Spooky behaviors
• When user add/drops VPN, NIC-to-Wifi, or switches from internal to
public IPs - even on single server configurations
• When ADFS and SharePoint live in different DNS domains
– And more...
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #3
Performance Anxiety
“Your SharePoint’s not slow! It’s taking a much needed repose.”
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #3
Performance Anxiety
• ADFS and SharePoint are both IIS applications that can fall
asleep for various reasons
– To keep everything awake you have to hit every ADFS server and every
SharePoint WFE
– Some solutions don’t yet support claim based web sites
• Delays caused by Certificate Authority
– Long chain of authority
– Certificate Revocation Lists
– Unusual or new configuration
• CA Web Services
• Load balanced CA farms
• Multiple firewalls
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Gotcha #3
Performance Anxiety (cont.)
• 3rd party claim provider delays
– In-House Custom Queries
• AD might be fast, but what about that custom PeopleSoft Query to
Oracle that your junior programmer wrote?
• If you're hitting a service on your network, performance may vary
widely depending on server loads and overall network traffic
– Is it “The Cloud” – or just “The Fog”?
• There's lots of “stuff” between you and the cloud. (Air? Angry
Birds?) When using a service over the Internet, don’t expect it to
be consistently fast.
• There may be obstacles between your users and the claim
provider that don't exist between you and the claim provider.
Real World Claims in ADFS and SharePoint 2010
EVEN IF YOU WIN,
YOU LOSE!
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Shortcomings that Annoy Users
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Can't log out
Can’t switch users
It makes adding new users a pain
Double realm selector = annoying
Some SharePoint features aren’t claims
compatible
– WebDAV (Explorer View)
– A variety of third party products
– Others?
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Shortcomings that Annoy Admins & Security Folks
• Headaches migrating existing users
• Some tools aren’t claims compatible
– Certain PowerShell commands
– Third-party management products
• Reliance on cookies
– Replay based attacks force using SSL
– Shoulder surfing attacks – did I mention you can’t log out?
• Session based cookies just suck
– They break the Office client
– Thanks to ADFS cookies, they do no good anyway
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Shortcomings that Annoy Developers
• Some ID providers don't provide all 3 required
claims
– Google doesn't (generally) give an e-mail
– Many require you to code your own default group
• Lots of old non-claims-aware web service code
• Singin’ the Custom Claim Picker blues
– Hard to learn / implement
– Laaaaaaaaaag
– “Exceptional circumstances”
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
“When Life Gives You Lemons…
…don't make lemonade. Make life take the
lemons back! Get mad! I don't want your
damn lemons, what am I supposed to do
with these? Demand to see life's manager!
Make life rue the day it thought it could
give Cave Johnson lemons! Do you know
who I am? I'm the man who's gonna burn
your house down! With the lemons! I'm
gonna get my engineers to invent a
combustible lemon that burns your house
down!”
-Cave Johnson
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
So if it’s So Bad, Why Use It?
Using ADFS / STS with SharePoint does resolve
some long standing challenges.
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For users, fewer accounts just makes the world a better place
Can shift user account management [costs] onto others
ADFS as a broker means less code, less reliance on PowerShell
It also means less [re]configuration of SharePoint
ADFS Proxy more secure for extranet / public facing web sites
Sometimes the easiest / only way to integrate with user DB
Others I haven’t even thought of…
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Why Use It (cont.)
Many of the problems I described have been
partially or fully resolved.
• Migrating users – we’ve got a PowerShell for that!
• Can’t log out of SharePoint? We fixed that too!
• Proper architecture preserves access for non-claimsaware applications and tools
• Too many realm pickers: multiple solutions
– Have only 1 realm in ADFS + WinAuth or Move entirely to
ADFS (no WinAuth) = get by with only 1 realm picker
– Use a custom solution to dynamically pick the realm
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Why Use It (cont.)
• Development of custom claims pickers
– Pickers greatly simplify adding users to SharePoint
– Standard sources can be used by many clients and
ruggedized: AD/LDAP, ASP.net SQL, PeopleSoft
– Truly custom pickers should receive the strongest possible
reliability and performance testing
• Many security concerns have been mitigated
– SSL is not as expensive as it used to be
– Ability to delete cookies by logging out: user training
– Limit risks through proper network & server configuration
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
Why Use It (cont.)
New capabilities are emerging rapidly:
• Liquid Mercury Code Solutions
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Log out, Realm auto-select, and Self-service cookie delete
Open ID Secure Token Service – Log in to SharePoint with Google
Self registration – new user profile page (in progress)
Standard claims pickers (in progress)
• Open Source Projects on Codeplex
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Federation Metadata Editor
thinktecture StarterSTS and IdentityServer
Claims Based Identity & Access Control Guide
Tools / Web Parts for FBA user management
And more arriving everyday!
THANKS FOR COMING!
If you liked my presentation, visit our web site at
http://www.liquidmercurysolutions.com to read
the multi-part companion blog series
or follow us @SPLiquidMercury
Real World Claims in SharePoint 2010
QUESTIONS…
…OR DEMO???
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
to our
Sponsors
Thanks toThanks
Our Other
Sponsors!
Welcome to SharePoint Saturday—The Conference
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Presenter:
Thomas Carpe
Session Name: Real World Claims
Session No.:
Sat-S2C-104

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