Foreign Policy of the First 5 Presidents Pages 32-51 • Isolationism - a national policy of staying out of political or economic relations with other countries Vocabulary This is a list of words you may need to learn in order to be successful while studying this unit • War hawks - Government officials wanting to attack Britain and invade Canada • Tribute - the sum or price paid or demanded • Ransom - a stated sum or other valuable consideration paid by one sovereign or state to another in acknowledgment of subjugation or as the price of peace, security, protection, or the like. • Impressment -Forcing American sailors into the British Navy Page 32 1. What type of bird is on the seal and why? 2. What is in the Talons and why? 3. Why is E Pluribus Unum the motto on the seal of the United States? 4. Why all the 13’s everywhere? Page 35 Page 34 1. What is the map of? 2. Which area is largest? 3. Which area is smallest? 4. Where does the US rank in size if you put them from smallest to largest? 5. Who would be the potential enemies of the United States in 1796 ( list 2)? 6. What could you do if you were the president of the United States 1796 to defend or protect the US from potential enemies (list 3)? • Washington had a policy of neutrality that become known as ISOLATIONISM. This policy became the foundation of the United States foreign policy for the next 100 years. Page 36 Sketch the picture and use Path to analyze it’s meaning. Use your notes and knowledge of President Adams’ foreign policy to Decide what a Adams should do to protect the American ships. Place you’re choice (a, b, c or d) on the scale at the bottom of this page. Isolationism -------------------Involvement Page 37 Adam’s Presidency • Adams tried to follow Washington’s policy of neutrality but it was difficult because of France. • Britain never left the Ohio River Valley after the Revolution and France hoped that the United States and Britain would go to war over this land. When Britain and the United States agreed that Britain would leave (the Jay Treaty) France was angry and began attacking American Ships. • XYZ Affair – Adams sent people to France to stop attacks. France wanted a bribe or no peace talks. Americans said NO! “ Millions for Defense, not a cent for Tribute!!” Americans are angry and Adams does not know what to do. • What should Adams do to protect the American ships? A. Request that Congress declare war on France immediately B. Make a military alliance with Britain and try to beat France. C. Continue to build stronger defenses and negotiate with France D. Stop all American shipping to avoid conflict Page 38 John Adams October 1735- July 4, 1826 • Create a tombstone for Adams based on his foreign policies Page 39 Solutions for Adams • Adams knew war would not be good for the country so he started to work for peace against his party’s wishes. • Napoleon took over the French government and was eager for peace with the Americans 1. France will stop attacking the American ships 2. End Alliance between France and America 3. America would not ask France to pay for ships that had been seized ( Americans would pay the ship owners) Choosing peace cost Adams his popularity with the people and his party. The Federalists would lose the next election but Adams had no regrets. Page 40 Sketch the picture and use Path to analyze it’s meaning. Use your notes and knowledge of President Jefferson’s foreign policy to Decide what a Jefferson should do to protect the American ships. Place you’re choice (a, b, c or d) on the scale at the bottom of this page. Isolationism -------------------Involvement • Britain and France were at war with each other and both were taking American ships. The British sailors started impressing American sailors into the British Navy. Britain justified impressments by claiming American sailors were deserters. Most Americans wanted war with Britain. • The Pirates of Barbary Coast were also causing problems for Jefferson. The Pirates were taking the wealth and holding the crew for ransom. Previous presidents Washington and Adams paid tribute (money to keep peace) to protect American ships. Jefferson did no know what to do – pay or go to war. • What should Jefferson do about the Pirates? A. Pay the increased tribute as requested and avoid bloodshed. B. Send a peace envoy to negotiate Page 41 Jefferson’s Presidency C. Send troops to force the pirates to allow American ships to trade in the Mediterranean D. Order American ships out of the Mediterranean to avoid conflict. Page 42 Thomas Jefferson April 1743 – July 4, 1826 • Create a tombstone for Jefferson based on his foreign policies Page 43 Solution for Jefferson • Jefferson tried to protect American ships from Pirates but there still was a problem. They finally agreed after the capture of the Philadelphia. Jefferson would pay ransom and tributes , and the attacks would stop. • Jefferson could not stop the British and French from attacking American ships, so he started an embargo (blockade) called the Embargo Act of 1807. No foreign ships could enter United States ports in an attempt to hurt the economies of the British and French. Unfortunately, he only hurt the American economy. Page 44 Sketch the picture and use Path to analyze it’s meaning. Use your notes and knowledge of President Madison’s foreign policy to Decide what a Madison should do to protect the American ships. Place you’re choice (a, b, c or d) on the scale at the bottom of this page. Isolationism -------------------Involvement • Madison decided to try something new with Britain and France – If you stop attacking American Ships, we will not trade with your enemies. Napoleon agreed, but Britain did not. • Madison had another problem – the Native Americans. The British in Canada were on the side of the Native Americans and were supplying them with weapons. After many problems with the Native Americans, Madison did not know what to do. Olive branch or arrows? • What should Madison do to protect the American sailors and the American settlers? A. Declare war on Britain and attack the British on land and sea. B. Declare war on Britain, but only wage a war at sea. Page 45 Madison’s Presidency C. Delay declaring war on Britain until the country is more prepared D. Do not declare war on Britain. The risks are not worth it. Page 46 James Madison March 1751 – June 1836 • Create a tombstone for Madison based on his foreign policies • Madison chooses the arrows and Congress declared war on Britain in 1812 – the War of 1812 • Invading Canada - War hawks thought it would be an easy victory. They thought the Canadians would welcome the Americans as liberators. Canadians considered the American troops as unwelcome intruders. The Americans failed to conquer Canada , but they did make the lands west of the Appalachians safer from Native Americans. • Washington and Baltimore - The British invaded Washington DC and burned the city and the capitol. They then headed to Baltimore by boat. The British bombed Fort McHenry at the entrance to the Baltimore Harbor through the night. Frances Scott Key wrote a poem after morning came and the American Flag was still there named the Star Spangled Banner • Battle of New Orleans – Fought after the peace treaty had already been signed because they did not know that the war was over. Andrew Jackson was in charge of defending New Orleans. Americans defeated the British troops for the greatest American victory of the war. • War ended with the Treaty of Ghent – 1.There would be no winner. They would just stop fighting 2. Americans had fought for what they believed in and had the respect of other nations 3. Gave Americans confidence in themselves Page 47 Solution for Madison Page 48 Sketch the picture and use Path to analyze it’s meaning. Use your notes and knowledge of President Monroe’s foreign policy to Decide what a Monroe should do to protect the American ships. Place you’re choice (a, b, c or d) on the scale at the bottom of this page. Isolationism -------------------Involvement • Returns America to a policy of isolationism • Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821 after 11 years of fighting sparked by Father Hidalgo on September 16, 1810. Many other South American countries fought for independence from Spain. • Britain supports these new revolutionaries and wants the United States to send a message with Britain to Europe to leave Latin America alone. • What should Monroe do to support the new Latin American nations? A. Join in an alliance with Britain to support Latin American independence B. Do not join an alliance with Britain and warn Europe to stay out of Latin America C. Allow the Latin American countries to defend themselves D. Work to create an alliance with all the Latin American countries to defend their independence against Europe interference. Page 49 Monroe’s Presidency Page 50 James Monroe April 1758 - July 1831 • Create a tombstone for Monroe based on his foreign policies Page 51 Solution for Monroe • Monroe asks Jefferson and Madison for advice and both liked the idea of sending a message with Britain. • John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s Secretary of State, said the United States needs to send the message by itself and Monroe agrees. • Monroe Doctrine 1. Nations of North and South America are not to be considered for future colonization by any European power. 2. Any attempt to take any part of Latin America would be considered a threat to the United States. • Americans loved it, but the Europeans did not. • Along with isolationism, the Monroe Doctrine became the foundation for United States Foreign policy • This sent the world a message that the United States is no longer a collection of states but a strong, confident nation to be respected Study Guide Jefferson’s foreign policy Did Jefferson’s embargo work? Why? Why was Britain a problem at sea? How did Britain justify impressing American sailors? KNOW THE 7 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT – PAGE 6 OF NOTEBOOK United States Seal Students should be able to describe the seal and understand the symbolism. What is E Pluribus Unum the motto? Washington’s foreign policy Students should be able to describe Washington’s foreign policy What did Washington do to avoid pirate attacks? Adams’s foreign policy Who was a problem for Adams? What was Adam’s foreign policy and how did he feel about American responses? Why were Americans upset with Adams’ choices? What did Adams do to avoid pirate attacks? Madison’s foreign policy Why did the War Hawks want to go to war with Britain? Who wrote the Star Spangled Banner? What was the problem in the Ohio River Valley? Students should be able to recall facts about the Battle of New Orleans. List the things Americans got out of the War of 1812. How was Madison different from previous presidents? Monroe’s foreign policy What did the Monroe Doctrine say to European nations? Multimedia links Podcasts • http://www.howstuffworks.com/po dcasts/stuff-you-missed-in-historyclass.rss – How Thomas Jefferson Worked – What was America’s first terrorist threat? • http://www.learnoutloud.com/Pod cast-Directory/History/AmericanHistory/American-Experience--PBSPodcast/15172# – Fourth of July 1826 • http://www.learnoutloud.com/Pod cast-Directory/History/AmericanHistory/HistoryPodcast/6768 – Battle of New Orleans Video • http://www.veoh.com/brow se/videos/category/animati on/watch/v1557916zyx7f8K h# • http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=F2jig2WLkao • http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=vaHJ11A5lII Suggested Reading Lamar Junior High Library • The Jeffersonian Republicans : the Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812 • Andrew Jackson / Margaret L. Coit • The star-spangled banner / by Stuart A. Kallen. • Broken days / Ann Rinaldi. • Little house by Boston Bay / Melissa Wiley Fort Bend County Libraries • Washington ablaze : the War of 1812 • The War of 1812 • The battle for St. Michaels • The War of 1812 soldier at New Orleans • The smuggler's treasure / by Sarah Masters Buckey.