Foldables ™ and Reading Comprehension Katherine Rydzy What is a Foldable™? • A Foldable™ is a three dimensional graphic organizer created from paper that assists students while learning. • It does not rely on photocopied templates, leaving students to apply their own structure to the organizer. • It has been proven to improve students’ attitude and facilitate learning (Casteel and Narkawicz, 2006). • “Through the years there have been certain elements of continuity that never vanishpaper, pencils, scissors, and glue have always been available…” -Dinah Zike Benefits of Graphic Organizers • Helps students see the connections among different items of information (Davis and McPherson, 1989, Fisher, Zike, & Frey, 2007) • Consistent with our knowledge of brainbased learning and visual-kinesthetic learning styles • Serve as a note taking aid because they allow students to externally store information (Fisher, Zike, & Frey, 2007) (Katayama & Robinson, 2000) Additional Benefits: (Davis and McPherson, 1989) • Create active readers that self-monitor for comprehension • Integrate literal and implicit information • It has been proven that instruction in GOs improves comprehension, even when GO use has been discontinued Even More Benefits: (Kirylo, 2000) • Connects reading and writing as meaning making activities • Learning becomes more meaningful while rote instruction is reduced Elements of Effective Use • Students must be familiar with a variety of GO forms in order to select one that suits their needs in a given situation (Fisher, Zike, & Frey, 2007) – Forms should be concise, coherent, and coordinated (Mayer, et. al, 1996) – Connect prior knowledge and new knowledge • GO use should promote interaction among students (Kirylo & Millet, 2000) Casteel and Narkawicz Study (2006) • Followed the use of Foldables™ in a third grade social studies classroom using a quasi-experimental method • Findings: the use of Foldables™ brought about a positive increase in the affective domain for students while maintaining the same level of learning as a traditional approach to instruction. Anecdotal Notes from the Study: • Students began to apply the use of foldables across the curriculum without instruction to do so. • Teachers reported fewer discipline problems, higher student engagement, and better student attitudes when working with Foldables™. • All comments (from teachers and students) in relation to Foldables™ were positive. Sample Materials • • • • • Leftovers MiniBook Layered look book Circle stand Matchbox book Types of Folds Hamburger Hotdog Mountain Valley Shutter Burrito Taco Try it Out! • 1 Cut Book • Venn Diagram • Pyramid How could you use this in your classroom? Web Resources • • • • www.dinah.com www.dzacademy.com http://foldables.wikispaces.com http://www.catawba.k12.nc.us/C_i_resource s/Foldables.htm (examples of student work) • http://www.mswinston.com/fold.pdf (PDF of a Foldables™ book References • • • • • • Casteel, D.B., and Narkawicz, M.G. (2006). Effectiveness of Foldables™ Versus Lecture/Worksheet in Teaching Social Studies in Third Grade Classrooms. Forum on Public Policy. Davis, Z.T., McPherson, M.D. (1989). Story map instruction: A road map for reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 43. 232-40. Fisher, D., Zike, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Foldables: Improving Learning with 3-D Interactive Graphic Organizers. NCTE: Classroom Notes Plus. 1-12. Katayama, A. D., & Robinson, D. H. (2000). Getting students “partially” involved in note-taking using graphic organizers. Journal of Experimental Education, 68, 119-133. Kiryo, J.D., Millet, C.P. (2000). Graphic organizers: an integral component to facilitate comprehension during basal reading instruction. Reading Improvement, 37(4). 179-86. Mayer, R. E., Bove, W., Bryman, A., Mars, R., & Tapangco, L. (1996). When less is more: Meaningful learning from visual and verbal summaries of science textbook lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(1), 64-73. Zike, D. (1992). Big Book of Books. San Antonio: Dinah-Might Adventures, LP.