Audio Visual Preservation

Report
AUDIO VISUAL
PRESERVATION
Tre Berney –
Multimedia Specialist, Cornell University
Libraries
DIGITIZATION: A REALIT Y
 Older, ‘legacy’ media
> magnetic tape (open reel audio, VHS, cassette)
>degredation & playback obsolescence
>$$$$$
 Digital content
> digital content intake & management
>format (proprietar y and open) transcoding
>tools, digital AV skills
>$$$$
 Preservation and Access
> digital storage
> delivery
>$$$$
CONSIDERATIONS
Urgency of format migration (digitization)
Storage costs
Metadata and Records
Content Management and Delivery
Costs of doing nothing (Cost of Inaction
Calculator)
Existing resources/infrastructure
Knowing your limits
HOW TO DIGITIZE AUDIO
 Playback deck
(open reel, cassette, etc.)
 Analog to digital converter
(A to D, or A/D)
 Computer
(Capture software)
IN SEARCH OF STANDARDS
Audio Formats
 96kHz/24bit BWF/WAV (PCM) (preservation master)
 44.1kHz/16bit WAV (PCM) (CD standard access file)
 MP3 (streaming file)
Analog to Digital Conversion
 International Association of Sound and Audiovisual
Archives (IASA) TC-04
 Audio Engineering Society (AES)
HOW TO DIGITIZE VIDEO
 Playback deck
(VHS, U-Matic, Betacam etc.)
 Analog to digital capture
(internal or external capture card)
 Computer
(Capture software)
IN SEARCH OF STANDARDS
Video Preservation Formats
 SD - 10-bit Uncompressed MOV (preservation master)
 HD - JPEG2000 MXF 1080p QT/MOV (80% lossless
preservation master)
Access Formats
 SD - 3000kbps H264/AVC 480 x 640 (24 or 30fps,
de-interlaced) QT/MOV (web streaming)
 HD - 7000kbps H264/AVC 1080p x 640 (24 or 30fps,
de-interlaced) QT/MOV (web streaming)
BEST PRACTICES (SHORT VERSION)
 Best Practice 1: Per form preser vation transfer s in an appropriately
designed, critical listening environment . If such a space is not available,
choose a room that is quiet and is removed from other work areas and
traf fic, and be acutely aware of its sonic deficiencies.
 Best Practice 2: Route the signal from the playback machine to the analog to-digital conver ter using the cleanest, most direct signal path possible.
 Best Practice 3 : Design the monitoring chain to allow instant comparison
of the signal from the playback machine to the signal that has passed
through the analog -to-digital conver ter.
 Best Practice 4: Preser vati on studios must include test/calibration
equipment to test and monitor the transfer chain itself for noise as well as
to test individual components for per formance . During transfer, the
test/calibration equipment shall not be inser ted between the playback
machine and the recorder.
( s o u r c e : S o u n d D i r e c t i o n s , B e s t P r a c t i c e s f o r A u d i o P r e s e r v a t i o n ; M i k e C a s e y, I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y
& Bruce Gordon, Harvard University; 2008)
BEST PRACTICES (ABSURDLY SHORT
VERSION)
 Best Practice 1: Perform preservation transfers in an quiet
room.
 Best Practice 2: Route the most direct signal path possible
 Best Practice 3: Be able to compare the signal from the deck
and the computer.
 Best Practice 4: Routinely test your equipment to ensure
quality.
( s o u r c e : S o u n d D i r e c t i o n s , B e s t P r a c t i c e s f o r A u d i o P r e s e r v a t i o n ; M i k e C a s e y, I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y
& Bruce Gordon, Harvard University; 2008)
CUL AV DIGITIZATION LAB - B76 KROCH
Formats we digitize in-house:
¼” Reel to Reel Audiotape
Cassette
Vinyl Discs (Records)
VHS/SVHS
Umatic (¾”)
Up to 4k Digital-Born
Material
WORKING WITH VENDORS
Vendors are a great knowledge base
Advice is often free (if in doubt, ask)
Economy of scale
Go big, if possible
 Leveraging your records management
experience
 Preparation is key
 File naming, metadata provisions, formats &
codecs
RESOURCES
 Indiana University/Harvard Publications
 http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/
RESOURCES
 International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives
 http://www.iasa-web.org/
RESOURCES
 Library of Congress
http://videopreser vation.conser vation -us.org/
 Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)
http://www.digitizationguidelines.gov /
 Canadian Cultural Heritage
http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1266037002102/ 1265993639778
 Association of Moving Image Archivists
(http://www.amianet.org /)
 Bay Area Video Coalition (BAVC)
http://www.bavc.org /
AV @ CUL
Thanks!
Tre Berney
[email protected]
@treberney

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