kitchen basics powerpoint

Report
FOODS H267 REVIEW
Second Semester
2
Learning the Basics
What you need to know before you cook!
• Know Your Kitchen
– Appliances, Tools & Equipment
• How to Follow a Recipe
– Cooking & Mixing Terms
– Measuring & Abbreviations
• Personal & Food Safety
• Clean Up!
3
Kitchen Equipment
Cooking and baking tools and utensils save
time and energy.
• Make sure all utensils are durable and
are easy to clean.
Learn how to use these tools for best results:
• Cutting & Serving
• Mixing
• Baking - in the oven
• Cooking - on the stovetop
4
Cutting & Serving Tools
tongs
knives
vegetable peeler
grater
can opener
ladle
serving
5
Mixing Tools
Pancake Turner/Spatula
Measuring Tools:
Wooden Spoon
Dry Measuring Cups
Wire Whisk
Liquid Measuring Cups
Rubber Scraper
Measuring Spoons
Rotary Beater
Pastry Blender
Rolling Pin
Mixing Bowls
Strainer/Colander
6
Baking Tools
bread/loaf pan
cake pan
cookie sheet
Muffin Pan
10” X 15”
Jelly Roll Pan
9” X 13”
Rectangular
Baking Pan
Pie Pan
7
Cooking Tools
Small
saucepan
Medium saucepan
Dutch Oven
Small Skillet
Large Skillet
Casserole Dishes
stir fry pan
(wok)
8
Time-Saving Small Appliances
Special Equipment used in Class:
Waffle Iron
Stand Mixer
Pasta Maker
Blender
Griddle
Slow Cooker
Toaster
Deep Fryer
Ice Cream Maker
Food Processor
9
Know How To Follow A Recipe
It is important to know some basic cooking terms
and how to measure ingredients accurately when
preparing foods.
Most recipes list ingredients and directions in the order
that they occur. Follow the recipe step-by-step.
To Get Good Results From a Recipe:
•
•
•
•
Read the recipe carefully.
Get all utensils, tools and ingredients ready.
Measure accurately.
Follow directions!!!!
10
Measuring Dry Ingredients
For dry ingredients including
flour, sugar, and salt, use dry
measuring cups & spoons.
• Heap
• Level
dry measuring
cups
• Empty
measuring
spoons
11
Measuring Solid Ingredients
For solid ingredients including peanut
butter, shortening and brown sugar use
dry measuring cups.
• Pack
• Level
• Empty
12
Measuring Liquids
For liquid ingredients including
milk, water, oil, and juice, use liquid
measuring cups.
• Set cup on a flat surface.
• Bend down to eye level and
pour until the desired mark is
reached.
liquid measuring cup
13
Using Measuring Spoons
Use measuring spoons to measure
small amounts of dry and liquid
ingredients. Do not use kitchen spoons,
they are not accurate.
How to measure the following:
• 3/4 tsp. Salt
• 3 tsp. Vanilla
14
Abbreviations
Do you understand these abbreviations?
teaspoon
tsp. or t.
Tablespoon
Tbsp.or T.
cup
c.
pint
pt.
quart
qt.
ounce
oz.
pound
lb. or #
few grains
f.g.
Fahrenheit
F
15
Equivalents
From small to large measurements:
1 Tbsp.
=
3 tsp.
1 c.
=
16 Tbsp.
2 c.
=
1 pt.
4 c.
=
1 qt.
16 c.
=
1 gal.
2 pt.
=
1 qt.
4 qt.
=
1 gal.
16
Cooking Terms
Just a few of hundreds of terms:
Cutting & Peeling:
Core
Cube
Chop
Pare
Dice
Slice
Peel
Mince
Mixing:
Beat
Fold
Combine
Blend
Stir
Strain
Cream
Whip
Cut in
17
Cooking Terms
Using the Stovetop:
Baste
Fry
Brown
Boil
Simmer
Stir-Fry
Braise
Sauté
Preheat
Bake
Roast
Preheat
Broil
Grill
Using The Oven:
Using The Microwave:
Cooking Time
Rotate
Standing Time
18
GAS STOVETOP COOKING
•Please check
knobs are off!
•Easy to bump
gas on—BE
CAREFUL!
•When cleaning,
pick up burners
and clean under
19
Microwave Ovens
Read the manual and know how to operate your
microwave properly.
• Using & Caring for Microwave Ovens:
– Do not turn on a microwave when empty.
– Use only microwave safe cookware, like glass, ceramic,
plastic and paper. Do not use metal cookware or wires or
metallic-edged dishes.
– Clean the interior and exterior after use, including door seal.
• Safety Tips:
– Always use a hot pad, dishes become hot in the microwave
from the food.
– Pierce certain foods before cooking (i.e. potatoes, hotdogs).
– Remove cover so steam flows away from your face.
20
Microwave Ovens
Use your microwave to thaw, cook, reheat and
save preparation time.
• Microwave Cooking Tips:
– The higher the wattage the shorter the cooking time.
– Vent one side of plastic wrap cover to allow moisture
to escape.
– Standing time allows food to continue cooking.
– Use paper towels to prevent spattering.
– Stir during cooking time.
– Foods that need to boil, such as pasta, rice, lentils and
dry beans, will not cook faster in a microwave.
21
Safety in the Kitchen
A Must When Cooking!
Did you know that more accidents happen in the
kitchen than any other room in the house?
Safety can be divided into two very important areas:
• Personal Safety in the kitchen.
• Food Safety - preventing food-borne illnesses.
22
Food Safety
Preventing Food-Borne Illnesses:
• A food-borne illness is an illness transmitted by food.
• Millions of cases of food-borne illnesses occur in the
U.S. each year. Many go unreported because people
mistake their symptoms for the “flu”.
A food borne illness can result in one of two ways:
• Contaminants – substances that have accidentally
gotten into food.
• Bacteria – micro-organisms that multiply and under
certain conditions can cause people to get sick.
• Cross Contamination—transfer of bacteria from
utensils to food due to improper handling
23
Types of Food Borne Illnesses
Bacterial illnesses
• Caused by ingesting bacteria or the toxins
(poisons) produced by bacteria
• Most microorganisms live best in warm
temperatures
• Examples:
– Botulism (dented cans)
– E.coli infection (beef)
– Trichinosis (pork)
– Salmonella (poultry & raw eggs)
– Staphylococcal poisoning (improper storage)
24
Handle Food Properly
Prepare foods as directed and properly clean them.
• What are things you should remember when
preparing foods? i.e., fruits, vegetables, meats
such as chicken, beef, dairy products?
•First in - First out:
• Use food supplies in the same order in which they were
received
Store food at correct temperatures. Know the Danger
Zone for certain foods!
– The Danger Zone is the temperature range of
40° - 140° F. where certain foods could begin to
develop harmful bacteria.
– Don’t keep these foods longer than 2 hours
at room temperature.
25
Potentially hazardous foods…
Moist, high protein foods
Foods that are great places for
bacteria to grow
• Meat (ground beef)
• Poultry
• Eggs
• Dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt, etc.)
• Canned foods
• Seafood
Signs of Food Spoilage
Yeast spoilage
Other signs
• Bubbles or foam
• Off odor
• Slime
• Discoloration
Mold spoilage
• Various colors of fuzzy
growth
• Circular pattern of
growth
If you suspect a food is
spoiled, DO NOT TASTE IT.
• Mushy texture
• Bulging or corroded
can
• Cloudy appearance
• Soft spots or breaks
in the skin on fruits &
veggies
27
Personal Safety
Many kitchen accidents are due to lack of information
or carelessness.
• Chemical poisoning, cuts, burns, fires and falls
are the most common of these accidents.
• Electric shock and choking follow close behind.
You can prevent many accidents by:
• Properly using and caring for equipment.
• Noticing and correcting potential dangers.
• Being organized and following directions.
• Keeping your kitchen clean.
28
Ways To Prevent Food-borne Illness
Sanitation – Keep yourself and your kitchen clean.
What are things you should be doing before you cook
for personal and kitchen cleanliness?
Wash hands with
hot, soapy water.
Scrub
hands,wrist
wrist
Scrub hands,
and fingernails
AT
and
fingernailsforfor
LEAST
at
least 10
20seconds.
seconds.
Rinse with
hot water.
Dry with a
paper towel.
29
What About The Dishes?
How to Wash Dishes Properly:
• Scrape extra food into the garbage.
• Prepare your water, make sure it’s very
warm, and has enough soap to clean your
dishes. Do not use too much soap…
• Wash glasses first, then silverware, plates, and
cups. Wash pots and pan last, they will make
the water greasy.
• Dry dishes and put away…not wet please!
30
Now You’re Ready To Cook
• Plan ahead… know your recipe(s) and what
ingredients and tools you need.
– You may want to develop a plan.
• Get everything you’ll need out ahead of time
and be organized.
• Measure ingredients carefully and follow the
recipe directions step-by-step.
• Wash your hands before and after handling
foods and clean up as you go.
• When finished, wash, dry and put away the
tools and utensils.

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