biogenic elements

Report
Integrace odborného anglického a německého
jazyka do výuky přírodovědných předmětů
BIOCHEMIE
sestavila PhDr. Marcela Helešicová
SPŠCH Brno, 2013
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
OF LIVING ORGANISMS
text for education of biochemistry
KEY WORDS
•
•
•
•
living organisms
living matter
chemical elements
biogenic elements
– macrobiogenic elements
– microbiogenic elements
– trace elements
KEY WORDS
• biomolecules
• inorganic substances
– water
– carbon dioxide
– salts
• organic substances
–
–
–
–
proteins
nucleid acids
saccharides
lipids
• biological macromolecules – biopolymers
• high molecular substances
• low molecular substances
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN THE NATURE
• 92 elements are naturally present in the nature.
ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH´S CRUST
• 92 elements
• 75 % oxygen and silicon, 25 % other elements
BIOGENIC ELEMENTS
• About 30 elements create the living matter.
• Biogenic elements are divided into 3 groups.
• Macrobiogienic elements:
C, O, H, N, S, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe
– Four elements represent up to 95 % of living
matter.
– building function
BIOGENIC ELEMENTS
• Microbiogienic elements:
I, Zn, Co, Mn, Mo, Cu
– catalytic function
• Trace elements:
Al, F, Si, Se, ……….
– catalytic function
BIOMOLECULES
Living organisms are composed of several
types of substances called biomolecules.
 Low molecular substances
 High molecular substances
BIOMOLECULES
• Low molecular substances (Mr < 10 000)
– water
– carbon dioxide
– mineral salts
– amino acids
– lipids
– monosaccharides
– nucleotides
BIOMOLECULES
• High molecular substances (Mr > 10 000)
– BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES
– proteins
– nucleic acids
– polysaccharides
Questions and tasks
1. Which two chemical elements are the most frequent
in the Earth’s crust and what is their form?
2. What are biogenic elements, how do we divide them?
3. Name 4 basic macroelements. Why are they
important? What is their content (percentage) in
living organisms?
4. Name the microbiogenic elements and give examples
of their importance.
5. What is the function which is common for trace
elements and what is their content in living
organisms?
Questions and tasks
6. Explain the term biomolecule. Which element forms
biomolecules?
7. What is the average content of water in organisms
and what is its function?
8. Give 3 examples of non-dissociated salts which are
present in human body. Give examples of tissues,
where the salts are present.
9. Name the basic groups of biopolymers and name the
building units they consist of.
10. Give the average percentage of proteins, saccharides,
lipids and nucleic acids in living organisms.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION


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