To increase by six-fold the content and bioavailability of zinc in cassava tubers and to demonstrate its viability in the field and efficacy in humans ZINC BIOFORTIFICATION OF CASSAVA TUBERS Shuaibu Kahya,Narayanan N. Narayanan 1 , Eliana Gaitan- solis , Martin Fregene¹ and Richard T. Sayre1 1Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO 63132, USA Germination media Introduction A14-AtZIP1-tNOS in Tobacco seedlings Cloning and Construct Vectors Cassava (Manihot esculenta), being the major staple food crop for more than 300 million people in Africa lacks important micronutrients such as Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc. However, zinc deficiency is a widespread nutrition and health problem in the world especially in the developing countries. Zn deficiency in humans is widespread and is estimated to affect more than 25% of the world’s population and rank the 5th among the most important health risk factors in developing Countries and 11th worldwide, and it is equally as important as iron (Fe) and vitamin A deficiency. Genetic engineering approach for biofortification of staple crops are currently used to combat Zinc deficiency. A14-AtZIP1-tNOS construct in p2301 was given as a gift from Eliana Gaitan-solis, DDPSC. Primers with restriction enzymes (EcoRI and KpnI) were designed to pull out the construct and cloned it in pCAMBIA2300. AtZIP1 driving by A14- root epidermal promoter was introduced into cassava (FEC) via Agrobacterium mediated transformation SEQUENCING PAT Apoplastic passage AGRO-TRANSFORMATION ZAT Use Uptake unloading Phloem transport (c) Xylem loading Xylem transport Screening of clones by PCR with different primers CASSAVA FEC SYSTEM Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation (Cassava FEC) 1 Symplastic passage (a) Mobilization (b) Uptake FEC C0-CULTURE RESTING Constructs Used STAGE 1 ATZIP1 MS2 MS-BAP GFP STAGE 2 MS-BAP NOS Preliminary analysis shows that A14 is expressed in root epidermis and leaves (Elisa LeyvaGuerrero, unpublished data). This should increase the transport of zinc into the root epidermis and not concentrate in the cortex there by preventing the accumulation of zinc into the root alone.AtZIP1 is a Zinc transporter expressed in the root(Natasha et al; 1998) A14 ATZIP1 NOS PAT AtMTP1 PAL AtHM4 NOS PAT AtMTP1 Shoot NOS AtMTP1 is already known to mediates Zn detoxification and storage by vacuolar sequestration of Zn in plant cell (Anne- Garlonn et ;al 2005) . Using this gene with the patatin promoter will balance zinc homeostasis in the plant and maintain high zinc concentration in the target root tissue Root H₂0 T10 T12 T13 WT T9 A14:ZIP T8 Dot blot Analysis A 100ng of genomic DNA (both WT and transgenic) were loaded. Hybridized with 2X35S probe, Samples loaded in triplicates . Out of 24 lines screened, preliminary analysis indicate six transgenic lines show 2 or 3 copy numbers . WT A14-AtZIP1-tNOS binary plasmid was introduced into cassava using Agrobacterium transformation. Seventy independent transgenic lines were obtained . Twelve lines were screened for PCR as shown in the figure above. Four lines show the presence of the gene. Leaves and roots will be collected and mineral analysis will be performed. Conclusions Tobacco transgenic lines carrying A14-AtZIP1-tNOS shows a promising phenotype in shoots indicating a balanced Zn homeostasis. ICP mineral analysis are in progress. Constructs with different promoters are made and transformed into cassava. Molecular analysis and mineral analysis will be performed. Acknowledgements NOS 840-PAL found express rapidly in parenchyma, vascular tissues especially into.AtHMA4 xylem parenchyma, 840-PAL is found tois express rapidly to in vascular tissues especially into xylem tyloses both in leaves and roots (Nigel Taylor) enhance the zinc loading into xylem tissue and increase root – shoot translocation. tyloses both in leaves and roots. AtHMA4 enhance the zinc loading into xylem tissue and . increase root – shoot translocation (Verret et al; 2004). T7 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C2 GFP Expression A14 T6 A14-AtZIP1-tNOS in Cassava F G H Transition metal from the soil to the sites of use and storage in the leaf. (a) to enhance mobilization by secretion of organic acids, (b) to increase uptake by over expression or deregulation of transporters, (c) to stimulate uptake into the root and translocation via the xylem by overproduction of intracellular chelators, (d) to increase the strength of metal sinks in the leaves by over expression of storage and detoxification mechanisms. T5 A14-AtZIP1-tNOS binary plasmid was introduced into tobacco using leaf-disc Agrobacterium transformation. Twelve independent transgenic lines were obtained and screened for the presence of transgene (AtZIP1) PCR of 9 Tobacco Transgenic lines as shown in the figure above. Nine lines show the presence of the gene. Leaves, roots and seeds from T0 generation will be collected and mineral analysis will be performed. Homozygous lines will be obtained and be used to study zinc homeostasis. SPREAD PLATE (Stephan et al; 2002) T4 PCR results of nine Tobacco Transgenic lines B C D E Storage and detoxification T3 H₂0 ZIP T2 WT DIGESTION Symplastic passage T1 Water control PATZAT-P2301 A14 Soil Green house A14ZIP CLONING A14ZIP-P2301 AMPLIFICATION p2300 PCR A14ZIP+PATZAT Path of Transition Metals and Genetic Engineering Target A14ZIP Patatin (1kb) is a root specific promoter from Solanum tuberosum, while AtMTP1 (1kb ) was amplified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. PATAtMTP1-tNOS in p2301 was digested with Kpn1 and Sal1 and cloned into plasmid of pCambia-A14-AtZIPtNOS. This double construct was also introduced into cassava (FEC) via Agrobacterium - mediated transformation To increase by six-fold the content and bioavailability of zinc in cassava tubers and to demonstrate its viability in the field and efficacy in humans Use Rooting media Germination media ABSTRACT Objectives (d) Storage and detoxification Selection Acknowledgement Cassava invitro seedlings transformed with p2300-GFP showing GFP fluorescence in root and shoot tissues. Pictures were taken 8 weeks after transformation. We would like to thank Dr. Eliana Gaitan solis for giving the constructs and support and Kevin Lutke, Tissue Culture Facility, DDPSC for transforming into Tobacco. Funding from Gates Foundation and support from Biocassava plus and NRCRI Umudike is greatly appreciated.