Outcomes

Report
Planning a module
a focus on learning outcomes
PREDAC 2013
Cecilia Jacobs and Brenda Leibowitz
SESSION OVERVIEW
• Why a focus on outcomes?
• Outcomes and the process of instructional
design
• Some theoretical perspectives
• Activity 1
• Outcomes within the SU context
• Activities 2 & 3
• Outcomes: the good, the bad and the ugly
Why a focus on outcomes?
• International shifts towards outcomes based
education: Europe (Bologna declaration of 1999);
Australia, NZ.
•
•
•
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SA uptake of OBE – basic and HE sectors
HE sector regulatory framework: SAQA, CHE, HEQC
Professional bodies: ECSA, HPCSA …
Programme/qualification level outcomes (ELOs)
Module outcomes
Critical cross-field outcomes
Shifts in the field of HE
• Lecturer-centred (passive, dependent … )
• Student-centred (active, independent … )
• Learning-centred (increasing interest in outcomes)
• Knowledge-centred (current development)
What are learning outcomes?
• A core component in any curriculum at both
programme and module level
• Popular definition of the purpose of learning
outcomes:
“Learning outcomes are used to express what learners are
expected to achieve and how they are expected to
demonstrate that achievement.” Kennedy, Hyland & Ryan (2006).
• Different to aims and objectives:
– The aim of a module/programme is a broad general
statement of teaching intention
– The objective is a specific statement of teaching intention
Outcomes and the process of
instructional design
Situational
analysis
Evaluation
(feedback)
Facilitating
learning
Planning a
module
Writing
outcomes
Assessment
Situation analysis
• Macro level
– Industry/ Employers
– Other universities (benchmarking)
– SU: Your teaching partner
• Meso level
– The programme
– The department
Situational
analysis
Evaluation
Planning a
module
Facilitating
learning
• Micro level
– The lecturer (Do your own SWOT analysis)
– The students / Target group
– Infrastructure
Writing
outcomes
Assessment
Assessment
Assessment of students is directly related to
and aligned with the outcomes of the module.
Situational
analysis
Evaluation
Facilitating
learning
Planning a
module
Writing
outcomes
Assessment
First session tomorrow morning focuses on
this.
Facilitating learning
The what (content):
• In relation to outcomes and assessment
• Relevant and recent
• Consider time, workload and availability of resources
The how (methods/aids):
• Group work, self study
Planning a
module
• Lectures
• Field work / Excursions
• Practical sessions / Clinical / Laboratory
• Technology: PPT; media; moodle , mobile learning …
Situational
analysis
Evaluation
Facilitating
learning
Writing
outcomes
Assessment
Evaluation
•
•
•
•
•
Peer evaluation
Student feedback
Professional bodies
Employers
Community
Situational
analysis
Evaluation
Facilitating
learning
Planning a
module
Writing
outcomes
Assessment
This can then be used again for the situation
analysis of the next round
Some theoretical perspectives
• Bloom’s taxonomies – cognitive, affective,
psychomotor domains (head/heart/hand)
• Bloom’s revised taxonomy – cognitive
domain (Anderson & Krathwohl)
• Biggs’ SOLO taxonomy (Structure of
Observed Learning Outcomes)
• Fink’s taxonomy of significant learning
Bloom’s Taxonomy (Cognitive)
ORIGINAL - 1956
REVISED - 2000
Higher order thinking
Making Bloom lie down
Activity 1 (in pairs)
• Look at the examples
of outcomes in the
envelope
• Decide on which
cognitive level you
would place each
outcome.
This is simply an
awareness- raising
exercise. The focus is
not primarily to see
who is right and who
is wrong!
1. Remembering
• Students should be able to:
– define “iambic pentameter”
– state Newton’s Laws of Motion
– identify the major impressionist painters
2. Understanding
• Students should be able to:
– describe data indicated by a graph
– summarize passages from Huckleberry Finn
– translate paragraphs from Voltaire’s
Candide into English
3. Applying
• Students should be able to:
– describe an experiment to test the influence
of light and light quality on the Hill reaction
of photosynthesis
– scan a poem for metric foot and rhyme
scheme
– use the Archimedes Principle to determine
the volume of an irregularly shaped object
4. Analysing
• Students should be able to:
– list arguments for and against gun control
– determine the necessary controls for an
experiment
– discuss the rationale and efficacy of
isolationism in the global economy
5. Evaluating
• Students should be able to:
– assess the validity of the conclusions based
on the data and statistical analysis
– give a critical analysis of a novel with
evidence to support the analysis
– suggest stock market investments based on
company performance and projected value
6. Creating
• Students should be able to:
– write a short story in Hemingway’s style
– compose a logical argument on assisted
suicide in opposition to their personal
opinion
– construct a helium-neon laser
What have we learnt?
Outcomes comprise different elements
The level is not only determined by the
action verb, but also by the material
that is used
• Other issues? Clarity, time …
What does a learning outcome look like?
Upon successful completion of the degree, graduates will
be able to formulate, analyse, evaluate and solve
convergent and divergent engineering problems using
the first principles of maths and other sciences in an
innovative way:
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•
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Describe the course of the learning opportunity
Define the subject
State action verbs
Define the object
Describe the specific framework (context) or specific
circumstances
• State a specific set of values and norms and/or
attitudes which direct thought and action
SMART outcomes
• Specific
• Measureable
• Attainable
• Results-Focused
• Time-Focused
Activity 2: Exploring Form B
• Route:
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–
–
–
–
–
Faculty programme committees
Committee for Learning and Teaching (CLT/KLO)
Programme Advice Committee (PAC/PAK)
Academic Planning Committee (APC/ABK)
Senate
HEQC
• Some recurring problem areas:
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–
–
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Lengthy outcomes statements (e.g. 20 lines)
Outcomes at too low a level (e.g. describe)
Outcomes too generic (not contextualised in the field)
Cut and paste from one form B to another (generic)
Activity 3: Outcomes
Use the handouts as resources and formulate
three outcomes for your own module:
1. An outcome on the level of remembering
2. An outcome on the level of applying
3. An outcome on one of the highest 3 levels –
analysing/evaluating/creating
Activity 3: Outcomes (continued)
• Share your outcomes with the other
participants around the table.
• Together list:
– Critical success factors of outcomes
– Possible benefits of outcomes
– Possible disadvantages of outcomes
Critical success factors
Learning outcomes should:
• …
• Be clearly written and easily understandable
• Focus on what students will have to demonstrate
• Avoid complicated sentences
• Comprise 5-8 per module
• Use active verbs
• Be observable and measurable
• Be aligned with the aims, content and assessment of
the module
Potential benefits
• …
•Students know what is expected of them
•Helps lecturers focus on what they want
students to achieve
•Helps lecturers define assessment criteria
•Provides guidance to employers about graduate
attributes
•Encourages discussion on teaching and learning
more generally
Possible pitfalls
• …
•Could limit learning if written in a narrow
fashion
•Can be reductionist if not focusing on higher
order thinking skills
•Could result in assessment-driven curricula
Meta-reflection on process and methods used
Learning technique:
Academic function:
 Think-Pair-Share
 Concept development
and reflection,
information-sharing,
active listening
 Visual gathering
 Brainstorming, generating
ideas, gathering
information, categorising
and sharing information
Day 2 – Feedback using Google Forms
Steps:
1. Use any device that is connected to the
internet …
2. Go to web address:
http://bit.ly/prontak2013-2
3. Complete the feedback in the boxes
provided.
4. Click on the Submit button…

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