### Scheme

```Introduction to Functional
Programming with Scheme
Carl Reynolds
Carl Reynolds 2006
1
Expressions
• Atoms
– Numbers like 5 or 6.79
– Symbols like x, /, +, or find-parents
– Strings like “Bach” or “Carl”
• Lists
– ( enclosed within parentheses )
– () null list
Carl Reynolds 2006
2
Data Types
• Variables do not have type
– A variable can hold any type of data
• Values have type
–
–
–
–
Integer
Floating point
String
List
Carl Reynolds 2006
3
• Number evaluates to itself
• String evaluates to itself
• Symbol evaluates to the value of the
variable
• List
– First element is evaluated as a function, and
following elements as arguments to the function
Carl Reynolds 2006
4
REPL examples
> 4
4
> "Carl"
"Carl"
> (define x 17)
> x
17
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
5
REPL examples (cont.)
> (+ x 8)
25
> (define y (- x 3))
> y
14
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
6
quote
> x
17
> (quote x)
x
> 'x
x
> x
17
>
;don’t evaluate x
;alternate syntax
Carl Reynolds 2006
7
Lists
> (list 8 9 2)
;make a list
(8 9 2)
> (list 8 x y 88 x)
(8 17 14 88 17)
> (list a b c d)
[Repl(15)] Error: variable d is not
bound.
Type (debug) to enter the debugger.
> (list 'a 'b 'c 'd)
(a b c d)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
8
Lists of lists
> (define car-list (list 'ford 'vw 'nissan))
> (define drivers (list 'carl 'david 'chris))
> (define rides (list drivers car-list))
> rides
((carl david chris) (ford vw nissan))
>drivers
(carl david chris)
> car-list
(ford vw nissan)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
9
car
> rides
((carl david chris) (ford vw nissan))
>
> (car rides)
(carl david chris)
> (car (car rides))
carl
> (caar rides)
carl
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
10
cdr (“coulder”)
> (car rides)
(carl david chris)
> (cdr (car rides))
(david chris)
> (car (cdr rides))
(ford vw nissan)
> (cdr (car (cdr rides)))
(vw nissan)
> (cdr rides)
((ford vw nissan))
> (cdr (cdr rides))
()
(vw nissan)
Carl Reynolds 2006
>
11
cons
> (cons 'honda car-list)
(honda ford vw nissan)
> car-list
(ford vw nissan)
> (define car-list (cons 'honda car-list))
> car-list
(honda ford vw nissan)
> (cons 'bmw car-list)
(bmw honda ford vw nissan)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
12
cons (cont.)
> (define violations () )
> violations
()
> (cons 'my-first-ticket violations)
(my-first-ticket)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
13
append
> (define more-cars (list 'chevy 'buick 'saab))
> (append car-list more-cars)
(honda ford vw nissan chevy buick saab)
> car-list
(honda ford vw nissan)
> more-cars
(chevy buick saab)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
14
Writing your own functions
( lambda (params) (body) )
>(define square
(lambda ( x ) (* x x) )
)
> (square 8)
64
Carl Reynolds 2006
15
Functions (cont.)
> (define second
(lambda (myList) (cadr myList))
)
> (second drivers)
david
> drivers
(carl david chris)
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
16
if
> (define bigger
(lambda (a b) (if (> a b) a b))
)
> (bigger 6 7)
7
> (bigger 5 2)
5
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
17
cond
(define how-hot-is-it
(lambda ( degrees )
(cond ( ( < degrees 32 ) 'freezing )
( ( and (> degrees 68 ) (< degrees 80) ) 'comfortable )
( ( >= degrees 90 ) 'too-hot )
( #t 'hard-to-say )
)
)
)
> (how-hot-is-it 77)
comfortable
> (how-hot-is-it 44)
hard-to-say
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
18
Recursion
(define listSum
(lambda (n)
(cond ((null? n) 0)
((null? (cdr n)) (car n) )
( else (+ (car n) (listSum2 (cdr n))))
)))
> (listsum '(3 6 12 3))
24
> (listsum '(4))
4
> (listsum '() )
0
>
Carl Reynolds 2006
19
```