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The Ultra Linear Power Amplifier An adventure between triode and pentode by Rudolf Moers 1 Who am I Born in 1955 in Veldhoven and now living in Eindhoven in the Netherlands. Education: Primary Technical School Secondary Technical School High Technical School Summary of work experience: electrical engineering electronics electronics Analog video modification (RGB-keying) Analog audio circuits with semi-conductors Philips Optical Disk Mastering Compact Disk mastering electronics Compact Disk signal processing electronics And a lot more Philips Medical Systems Diaphragm control of Röntgen camera Philips Electron Optics Vacuum pump control for electron microscope Secondary Technical School Teacher electronics, theory and practice ASML Architecture of electronic hardware Infrastructure of cabling and racks with electronic boards and supplies. Halin Hobby : electron tube amplifiers and radio’s 2 Contents of this presentation 1. Introduction and history 2. Comparison of the static characteristic for Triode, Ultra Linear and Pentode 3. Comparison of the powers for Triode, Ultra Linear and Pentode 4. Network analyses of the Ultra Linear Power Amplifier a. Repetition of the pentode characteristics b. Repetition of the pentode quantities c. Current source and Voltage Source equivalent circuits of the Pentode d. Current source and Voltage Source equivalent circuits applied Ultra Linear 5. Determination of the screen grid tap 3 Contents of this presentation 6. Test equipment 7. Practical evidence 1 of the network analyses of the Ultra Linear Amplifier 8. Comparison of practical powers and efficiency of an amplifier in Triode mode, in Ultra Linear mode and in Pentode mode 9. Practical evidence 2 of the network analyses of the Ultra Linear Amplifier 10. Comparison practical frequency behavior of an amplifier in Triode mode, in Ultra Linear mode and in Pentode mode 11. Comparison practical non-linear distortion of an amplifier in Triode mode, in Ultra Linear mode and in Pentode mode 12. Bibliography 4 1. Introduction and history David Hafler & Herbert Keroes (not the inventors) published their Ultra Linear story in 1951. Publishing in 1959 of the Dutch book “Radio Technique part 1” written by A. J. Sietsma of the Philips company. The Philips company has never published an Ultra Linear story, but A. J. Sietsma made a homework exercise about screen grid negative feedback for students. Rudolf Moers solved this homework exercise about negative feedback in 2006 with his own formulae which gave the same results as A. J. Sietsma. 5 6 Screen grid tap of the primary transformer winding : x x vg 2, k vak x vg 2, k vak vg 2,k x vak 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 x = 0 : pentode 0 < x < 1 : ultra-linear x = 1 : triode 7 2. Comparison of the static characteristic for Triode, Ultra Linear and Pentode Same load lines with different scales for Vak triode Constriction 40V Constriction 100V pentode Constriction 50V Ultra-linear 8 3. Comparison of the powers for Triode, Ultra Linear and Pentode in theory. Vap,triode Vap,triode Iap,triode Iap,triode << Vap,ultralinear << Vap,pentode << Iap,ultralinear << Iap,pentode Va,pentode = Va,ultralinear Ia,pentode = Ia,ultralinear By this: Pap,triode << Pap,ultralinear Pap,triode << Pap,pentode Pa,pentode = Pa,ultralinear 9 Comparison of the powers for Triode, Ultra Linear and Pentode in practice. In Menno’s first book some design examples are shown which use with jumpers to configure the circuit into triode, ultra-linear and pentode. Power results: 2x EL34 with transformer VDV6040PP: 4x EL34 with transformer VDV3070PP: ptriode = 13W, pultralinear = 33W and ppentode = 40W ptriode = 30W, pultralinear = 70W and ppentode = 80W ptriode = 13 W 20 W pultralinear = 33 W versus pultralinear = 33 W 7 W ppentode = 40 W ptriode = 30 W 40 W pultralinear = 70 W versus pultralinear = 70 W 10 W ppentode = 80 W Reason : vap,triode << vap,ultralinear < vap,pentode The constriction of the vg1,k -curves in the anode characteristic Ia = f (Vak) near the Ia –axis is slightly more with ultra linear than with a pentode. 10 4. Network analyses of the Ultra Linear Amplifier 4.a. Repetition of the pentode characteristics Anode current 11 Screen grid current 12 13 4.b. Repetition of the pentode quantities Anode steepness is also called mutual conductance gm. Definition of anode steepness : For small signals : Definition of screen grid steepness : For small signals : S S I a with constant Vak and Vg2,k Vg1,k ia v g1,k S2 S2 I g 2 Vg1,k ig 2 with constant Vak and Vg2,k with constant Vak and Vg2,k with constant Vak and Vg2,k v g1,k 14 Definition of anode amplification factor : Vak V g1,k For small signals : Definition of screen grid amplification factor : v ak v g1,k g 2, g1 For small signals : g 2, g1 Anode : penetration factor Screen grid penetration factor V g 2 , k V g1,k v g 2,k v g1,k Da = µ-1 = 1/µ with constant Ia and Vg2,k with constant Ia and Vg2,k with constant Ig2 and Vak with constant Ig2 and Vak (Anode Durchgriff ) : Dg 2 g12, g1 1/ g 2, g1 (Screen grid Durchgriff) 15 Definition of anode AC internal resistance : ri Vak I a with constant Vg1,k and Vg2,k For small signals : ri vak ia with constant Vg1,k and Vg2,k Definition of screen grid Vg 2,k AC internal resistance : ri 2 I g 2 For small signals : ri 2 v g 2, k ig 2 with constant Vg1,k and Vak with constant Vg1,k and Vak 16 Barkhausen’s anode formula : S ri Barkhausen’s screen grid formula : g 2, g1 S 2 ri 2 µpentode as triode ≈ µg2,g1 At the anode: Anode AC internal resistance: ri (or plate resistance) Anode AC external resistance: ra (external load at the anode) Screen grid tap of the primary transformer winding : x 17 S I a Vg1,k μ ΔVak ΔVg1, k Vg1,k I a Vak I a Vg1,k Vak Anode current r i ΔVak ΔI a 18 S2 I g 2 Vg1,k ri2 ΔV g2,k ΔI g2 Vg 2,k Vg 2,k I g 2 Vg1,k Screen grid current Vg1,k μ g2,g1 ΔVg2,k ΔVg1,k 19 S S2 I a Vg1,k I g 2 Vg1,k ∆Vg1,k Vg1,k for S = ∆Vg1,k for S2 I a I g 2 S S2 I g2 S2 Ia S ig 2 S2 ia S 20 4.c. Current and Voltage Source equivalent circuits for the Pentode For triodes: According to the definitions, AC voltage vg1,k causes anode current : According to the definitions, AC voltage vak causes anode current : Superposititon of ia1 and ia2 gives The triode equation cc : ia S v g1,k ia1 = S·vg1,k ia2 = vak / ri vak apply Barkhausen’s ri S ri v : ia S v g1,k ak For pentodes: Factor v ak contributes to the anode current slightly because µ is large see anode steepness characteristic Ia = f (Vg1,k). Factor v g 2, k g 2, g1 contributes significantly to the anode current because µg2,g1 is small, see screen grid steepness characteristic Ig2 = f (Vg1,k). The pentode equation v g 2,k g 2, g1 : ia S v g1,k v ak 21 The pentode equation : v g 2,k v ak ia S v g1,k g 2, g1 Equal control grid base for anode current and screen grid current : Apply this in the pentode equation : ig 2 v g 2, k v i g 2 S 2 v g1,k ak g 2, g1 S2 ia S After some mathematical magic tricks we get the current source and voltage source models. Anode current source : v g 2,k v ak ia S v g1,k g 2, g1 ri vak v g 2,k S 2 v g1,k ri 2 Screen grid current source : ig 2 Anode : v g 2, k v ak ia ri v g1,k g 2 , g 1 : v i g 2 ri 2 g 2, g1 v g1,k ak v g 2,k voltage source Screen grid voltage source 22 23 4.d. Current source and Voltage Source equivalent circuits applied to Ultra Linear x vg 2, k vak x vg 2, k vak vg 2,k x vak 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 TARGET: A = vo /vi = f (x) and rout = f (x) 24 25 Without formulae we see directly : x of the primary winding partly contribution to power ig2 flows through part ia flows through part (1−x) +x of the primary winding full contribution to power With formulae derivation from the equivalent circuits we achieve : Anode voltage : vak vg 2,k ia 1 x ra ik x ra ia 1 x r a vg2,k = −(ia + ig2 ) ∙ x ∙ ra and is Kirchhoff’s first law ik = ia + ig2 for AC Total AC current : vak ia x i g 2 itotal ra The total AC current itotal is not the same as cathode AC current ik. 26 With the art of magic formula tricks ……. v g 2,k v ak The pentode equation : ia S v g1,k g 2, g1 vg 2,k x vak vak ia x i g 2 itotal ra ig 2 S2 ia S x vak vak S itotal 1 x 2 S vg1,k S g 2, g1 vak itotal ra .………… we achieve at the anode: Aa v ak v g1,k An easy formula derivation in small steps is available. S x S 2 ra x 1 1 S x S 2 ra g 2, g1 27 A S x S 2 ra Aa v ak v g1,k vo ns vak and vi = vg1,k np vo n s vi np x 1 1 S x S 2 ra g 2, g1 S x S2 ra x 1 1 S x S 2 ra g 2, g1 28 rout AC output resistance : vo ,open (Thevenin’s theorem) io , shortcircuit 2 ns r then RL = ∞ with a np RL . n When we have io,shortcircuit then RL = 0 with ra s np RL 0 . When we have vo,open vo ,open vi rout 2 vo ,open io , shortcircuit io, shortcircuit .………… we achieve at the output: Again with the art of magic formula tricks …. ns 1 np x 1 g 2, g1 np S 1 x 2 S vi ns S rout n s n p An easy formula derivation in small steps is available. 2 1 S x S x 1 2 g 2, g1 29 Summary A rout vo n s vi np ns n p S x S 2 ra x 1 1 S x S 2 ra g 2, g1 2 1 S x S x 1 2 g 2, g1 x is the variable and the other quantities are almost constant (in theory). 30