BusinessPlanning

Report
Business & Strategic
Planning
A step by step guide to developing and writing
a business plan
Business & Strategic Planning
What is a Business Plan?
A business plan is…
A written statement describing your organisation, why it is
needed, what organisational activities, services, facilities and
programmes are proposed, how these will be managed, what
outcomes and achievements will be made and how these will be
financed; in particular it will show where the money will be
sourced from and how and when it will be spent.
It should also include information about your organisation, its
aims, objectives, history and the organisation’s ability to delivery
the work/activities.
It is a means of demonstrating that you know what you are doing
and can be trusted with the money you are asking for.
Business & Strategic Planning
Why do we need a Business Plan?
INTERNAL REASONS
Opportunity
to develop
new ways of
working
Helps to work
out what your
priorities are
Provides
direction to
all staff &
volunteers
Helps to
reflect on
where you
are now
WHY?
Shows
the seriousness
of your goals to
funders &
commissioners
Opportunity for
other organisations
to inform the plan
Shows how
you are different
to other similar
organisations
Helps
to identify
problems early &
take appropriate
action
Increasingly
part of the
funding process
Business & Strategic Planning
EXTERNAL
REASONS
Before you get started
Developing a business plan should be a dynamic and creative
process, give those involved the opportunity to take a step back
and reflect, review the progress made and develop a new sense of
purpose and direction.
When…
It is important to consider the timing of developing your business planensure the organisation undertakes the process at an appropriate time
and schedules it into calendar- as they say if you fail to plan, you plan to
fail!
Effective Time Management and Support…
Managing the time effectively and supporting individuals and tasks will
help keep things on track during the process reducing the likelihood of
things getting dragged out, people gain a real understanding of what is
involved in it’s development and tasks are completed.
Business & Strategic Planning
Before you get started
Clarify consultation areas…
It is also important to think about who should be involved in the
process before you embark on developing a business plan for the
organisation. You will need to work out what areas are open for
consultation, those people both within and outside your organisation
who could contribute and communicate the decision making
processes clearly, which aids in managing people’s expectations.
Who to consult with…
Consulting with a wide range of staff, volunteers, groups and
organisations, both internal and external to the organisation, can
help with various aspects of the business plan including reviewing
where you are now, ideas for future work and what factors may
impact on the success of proposed ideas.
Business & Strategic Planning
Who can we consult with?
Some examples…
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Staff
Volunteers
Local Schools
Centre Users
Local groups
Local Parish/Town
Council
• Local Churches
• Children’s Centre
• Local District/Borough
Council
• Local businesses
• County Council
• Health organisations,
local PCT
• Police
• Sheltered
accommodation
• Housing associations
Business & Strategic Planning
Key Steps to devising your
Business Plan…
1. Clarifying the vision and the values of the organisation
2. Review the organisation’s current position
3. Identify Ideas- explore assumptions, strategic opportunities and
direction
4. Agree the strategic direction
5. Identifying the resources required and the organisation’s capacity to
deliver
6. Produce the Business Plan Document
7. Implement the Business Plan
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 1: What are our Mission,
Vision and Values?
Mission and Vision statements are two different things
although they are closely linked and may overlap.
A mission statement concisely describes the
organisation’s key purpose and primary objectiveswhat the organisation is in operation to do.
The unifying, localised statement should answer 3
questions from your communities (as your
‘customers’) perspective;
- What you do - How you do it - Who you do it for
Business & Strategic Planning
Tips on developing your Mission
Statement
1. Begin with thinking about the role your organisation plays
2. Ensure you take time writing the Mission Statement. It’s a
challenging but vital task- it needs to be both positive and
inspirational!
3. On separate lists write down: What you do and how well you do
it, the people involved in and participating with your
organisation, your community- who are they, how you help
people and your organisation’s values, beliefs and philosophy.
5. Pick out the most important points
6. Gain input from other people
7. Select your most important words and combine in one sentence
or put your most important sentences together in one short
paragraph – you’ll then have a Mission Statement!
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Vision and Values
Vision
A vision statement is the long-term change the organisation
would ideally like to see if its work is successful. It should
set out your ideal destination- where your organisation wants
to be. It should be challenging, innovative and forwardlooking. The vision should be motivating and enable staff,
volunteers and others to see how their effort contributes to
an overall inspirational purpose.
Values
The beliefs of an organisation, the expression of what it
represents and how it will conduct itself. Values are the heart
of an organisation's being. Values underpin policies,
objectives, procedures and strategies as they provide an
anchor and a reference point for all things that take place.
Business & Strategic Planning
Some mission, values and vision
examples…
Community Action Hampshire’s Mission Statement;
“To strengthen and promote voluntary and community action”
Community Action Hampshire’s Values;
• To remain an independent advocate for the voluntary and
community sector in Hampshire
• To conduct ourselves in an open and transparent way
• To be responsible to the needs and views of our members
• To value the diversity of the voluntary and community sector
Youthnet’s Vision statement;
"Youthnet's vision is of an inclusive and equitable society that values
children and young people and actively enables and celebrates
their contribution to this."
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 2: Reviewing your
organisation’s current position
Review and evaluation
area’s for your
organisation to consider
Services,
facilities &
Project performance
Current & future
Trends both internal
& external
Financial
performance
Management
& Governance
capabilities
Organisational
structure
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Where are we now?
In order to develop a realistic and effective business plan that
takes the organisation into the future it is important that a review
of the organisation as it stands now is undertaken. You’ll need to
consider where you are now, what you do and how you do it, how
did you get to this point, what has gone well and what hasn’t,
who do you serve? These are just some of the questions you will
need to explore and answer.
Reflection & Reviewing Tools
To help you analyse your organisation, recognise trends, identify
what is happening both within and outside the organisation that
impacts on the work that you do and get a true picture of where
you are there are a number of reflection and reviewing tools you
can use, you can use one or all of them, whatever suits your
organisation…
Business & Strategic Planning
Reflection and Reviewing tools…
SWOT Analysis
The SWOT analysis looks at your
organisation’s Strengths,
Weaknesses, Opportunities and
Threats.
Think about what these are and
record them down, perhaps in a
table. By doing this you will be able
to pull out what you do well and can
build on, what needs to be improved
and developed. It will also identify
the opportunities the organisation
may be able to capitalise on and
identify obstacles and barriers that
may get in the way of developing the
opportunities. In turn this will aid
you to identify what the organisation
as a whole can do to overcome
these challenges.
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
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PESTLE analysis
A PESTLE analysis explores and identifies the external environment
factors that surround your organisation which have an impact on
the ‘business’ – what you do or want to do.
Political
Environmental
Economical
Community
Association
Legal
Social
Technological
Business & Strategic Planning
7S Model
This tool is frequently adopted to
assess and monitor changes
within the organisations’ internal
situation.
The 7S model is based on the
theory that, for an organisation to
perform effectively, the 7 elements
need to be aligned and mutually
supporting. Use the model to
review the organisation under
each element to see if you can
identify any elements that need to
be realigned to improve
performance.
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 3: Identify IdeasExplore assumptions, strategic opportunities &
direction
After reviewing and understanding your organisations current
position, activities, services, structure, strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities etc as well as your community needs and external
impacts and trends it is now time to use this information and
think about what, as an organisation, you would like to do in the
future.
Gain ideas from all stakeholders and explore…
• What areas of work will you continue to deliver and why?
Explore why you deliver the work you do. Should you continue to
deliver this work? Look into the areas of work that the organisation
currently delivers which are important to the community, effective
and are in line with your mission, values and vision for the future.
You may then wish to prioritise areas of work in relation to those
that are significant to achieving your aims, meet community need
and are financially viable.
Business & Strategic Planning
Identifying ideas and strategic
choices …
• What new areas of work do you need to develop and move into
and why?
Ask and work out, based on your review and need information,
what services, activities, events or programmes should the
organisation establish and deliver. Again you may wish explore
in depth why the organisation should move into the new areas of
work and prioritise them in relation to achieving your agreed
mission, vision and values, organisational capacity and financial
viability.
Other ideas can be identified by exploring…
• What partnerships, networks and forums do you need to
participate in and why?
• What do you need to develop internally to improve your
performance?
• What areas of work are you not going to deliver or move into and
why?
Business & Strategic Planning
What are your assumptions?
A business plan should outline clearly and define it’s core assumptions
as those stakeholders (including funders) reading it may wish to
understand the assumptions upon which the rest of the plan is based.
Assumptions need to be credible, openly discussed and frequently
reviewed. The danger of delivering services, activities, programmes
and events where an assumption no longer applies is common place.
It may be helpful to identify elements that may challenge or conflict with
the assumption and to test out how secure and concrete the
assumption is.
Examples of assumptions could include;
• The numbers of young people attending the youth club will stay the
same over the next three years
• Local government grant to our organisation will decrease by 8% a year
• Other community centres and halls in the area will continue to charge a
similar fee for their facilities as we do
• We will need to recruit more volunteers to help run our services and
activities.
Business & Strategic Planning
tep 4: Agree the strategic direction
Having a clear strategic direction with which the trustees and
staff are highly engaged is a critical factor in building a
sustainably successful organisation.
Strategic direction is about establishing your strategic
goals/aims and methods you will use to achieve them. It
implies a definition of intent, (what should the organisation
achieve and why) as well as identification of the key means of
achieving it, the main effort.
Agreeing the strategic direction and aims involves constant
referral to the mission statement, values and vision for the
organisation. The process will encompass a continual
movement between generating opportunities, forming
priorities and working within the resources the organisation
has and will have to utilise.
Business & Strategic Planning
Setting your strategic direction…
It is important to set strategic aims that:
• specify a clear direction;
• focus on intended outcomes;
• interlink with other aims;
• are realistic and achievable;
In order to have a plan that is fluid, concise, well planned and has a
clear direction it is important to restrict the number of strategic aims
you devise (ideally no more than 6 or 7).
Developing a future strategy usually involves making challenging
decisions. You may have to decide to discontinue an area of work,
reduce resources for a project or not develop a staff members
proposal all of which will most likely cause conflict and anxiety. It is
just as vital you consider the areas of work you will not be delivering
as to those areas you will.
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 5: Identifying resources
required & the organisation’s
capacity to deliver
Before finalising the organisation’s priorities, areas of work and
programmes of activity you wish to deliver within the business plan’s
timeframe, it is vital you work out if you can realistically achieve
them.
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You’ll need to ask yourself, explore and answer some questions
including;
Do we have the finances to deliver all of our intended work streams?
How much will it cost to deliver our activities, projects, services etc?
Do we have enough members of staff and volunteers to run and
manage the work?
What facilities and equipment will we need?
Do we have the appropriate policies, procedures and systems in
place?
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Financial Resources
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Financial information in a
business plan?
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In an increasingly tough market place a voluntary
organisation needs to demonstrate in a business plan
that;
It is financially viable has considered it’s financial policy
and expected income and expenditure in an articulate
and realistic manner
Made realistic predictions about the organisation’s
financial future
Has calculated its services, activities and programmes
costs using accurate figures and taken a full cost
recovery approach with contingency plans attached
Has consistent and reliable financial management
policies and procedures
Business & Strategic Planning
Financial position
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A good starting point is to look at reviewing your current
financial positionWhere do you gain income and what do you spend your
money on?
Is this likely to continue in future years?
How much do we rely on particular income streams?
Can we predict what financial trends will occur in the
next 3,5 and 10 years time?
What can we do to secure these income streams?
Where else can we gain income?
Income stream
Current position
Prediction of trend
Business & Strategic Planning
Action required
Where could we gain income
from?
• Grants from local
authorities
• Sponsorship
• Contracts and service
level agreements
• Grants from trusts,
other funding bodies
and companies
• Hire of facilities and
resources
• Membership
• Income from sale of
services/goods
• Management fees
• Legacies
• Fundraising
• Profit from trading
arms
Business & Strategic Planning
How much money will we need to
meet our strategic objectives?
It is important for voluntary organisations to
ensure that when calculating the cost of
services, activities and programmes that both
direct and indirect costs are worked out for
effective financial management.
Direct costs: the costs only incurred as a direct
result of delivering a particular service/activity for
example staff, equipment, room hire.
Indirect costs: the shared organisational costs
for example management time, administration
costs etc.
Business & Strategic Planning
Other financial considerations…
• Develop a budget
• Create a cash flow forecast
• What % of the organisations turnover would be
reasonable to use as a reserve or contingency?
• What financial policies and procedures do you
have in place? – how effective is your charging
policy? What type of charging strategy do you
use? Who authorises payments? Who monitors
financial activity of the project/service/
programme and organisation as a whole?
Business & Strategic Planning
Staff and volunteer resources
When developing
services/activities and
projects it is vital for the
organisation to work out
the staff and volunteer
implications…
• who do we need to meet
our goals and ensure we
have the capacity to
deliver them?
• What staffing structure do
we need in place?
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 6: Produce the
Business Plan document
When compiling the document itself it is important to consider the
readers who will usually be those you are requesting support from.
The style, layout and tone of the document will all make an impact on
the reader and it would be wise to think about first impressions- some
readers may only look at the front page or simply flick through the
document briefly.
It would be advisable to identify the key messages the organisation
wishes to get across (no more than about 5), organise the plan around
these, find someone outside of the organisation to review and
feedback on a draft copy, use practical and active language to ensure
the reader understands how you got to this point and how will achieve
your goals. The use of charts and diagrams can be effective in illustrating
information and avoid using abbreviations and jargon.
You will also need to consider different reading audiences and ensure it is
accessible to all people in the community.
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Business Plan sections…
1. Front Cover
Organisation name and logo
2. An ‘executive
summary’
An outline summary of the mission, values and
context. It should emphasise the proposed strategic
direction, main benefits and present a case for the
organisation (no more than one page)
3. Introduction
and mission
Explanation of the kind of organisation you are and
what you stand for, complete mission statement and
organisational values and the outcomes you wish to
achieve.
4. Background
The origins and development of the organisation.
What you have delivered and achieved, what area
you cover, who are the beneficiaries, number of
projects, staff, volunteers and your annual turnover
figures
Business & Strategic Planning
Business Plan sections
continued…
5. A
summary
review
A current overview of the organisation- emphasise the
successes and strengths of the organisation and positive
recognition that the organisation has received externally.
Demonstration of a honest appraisal highlighting areas for
development- SWOT is usually used to illustrate this
information.
6. Future
trends
An overview of the organisations identified future external
and internal environment trends that will impact on it’s
strategic aims.
7. Strategic
direction
The explanation and demonstration of the direction of
travel the organisation wishes to take- the assumptions
that have underpinned the identified direction, what work
will the organisation focus on, what are the main priorities
and what will be changed?
Business & Strategic Planning
Business Plan sections
continued…
8. Strategic
aims
The medium term aims are listed in this section and an
outline of the objectives that fall under each aim can be
included.
9. Implications
Identified legal, organisational and other implications of
the work to be included in this section. Clarification
made if services/activities are to be delivered differently
or halted altogether
10. Financial
information
Clear explanation of how the strategic aims and
objectives will be achieved financially and how these
assumptions were made. Details should include
income and expenditure forecasts for the year’s the
business plan relates, main financial policies and
evidence of effective financial management systems.
Business & Strategic Planning
Business Plan sections
continued…
11. Track record This section gives the opportunity to present the
of the
case for the organisation to the reader highlighting
organisation
successes- the strengths, experience, knowledge,
capacity and positive reputation the organisation
possesses. All of which will demonstrate the
capacity of the organisation to effectively implement
the business plan.
12. Immediate
action
A clear action plan which demonstrates the next
steps within the short term time frame.
Business & Strategic Planning
Step 7: Implementing the Plan
It is important to consider how the business plan will be
implemented across the organisation after it has been created. The
plan should not sit on the shelf collecting dust- it is a active
document that supporters, beneficiaries and other stakeholders will
be interested in particularly if they have provided the organisation
with funding.
If staff, volunteers and stakeholders have been engaged in the
process from the beginning then the implementation of the plan will
usually be effective.
As an organisation you should think about;
• How the plan will be communicated to those delivering it
• Clarifying the expectations
• How the plan and performance will be monitored and evaluated
Business & Strategic Planning
Don’t forget to considerMonitoring & Evaluating
It is important to explore how the business plan will be
monitored and evaluated throughout it’s life…
• How will you know if you have achieved your strategic
aims and objectives?
• How are you going to measure success?
• What monitoring and evaluation tools can be used overall
and within projects/activities and services? Who will be
responsible for this?
• How will these be communicated to beneficiaries, funders
and other stakeholders?
See our E bitesize training on Effective Monitoring and Evaluating at:
http://www.hants.gov.uk/rh/comm/monitoring-evaluation.pdf
Business & Strategic Planning
Implementing the plan and
monitoring performance
Using the monitoring
information you can
then measure the
progress you have
4. Evaluating
made and make any
results
necessary changes. It
is important to feed
this back to
stakeholders
Use monitoring
tools to measure
the progress of the
plan this
information can
then be used to
work out how well
you are doing.
3. Monitoring
progress
1. Defining
goals
2. Ensuring
delivery
Business & Strategic Planning
Ensure all those
delivering the plan
understand what they
are doing, when & why
clear expectations.
Goals, objectives &
targets can then be
used to monitor
progress.
Ensure the all
resources are in
place and individuals
supported to deliver
tasks, projects &
programmes.
Traffic light monitoring system
An effective and easy method to use to monitor the
progress of the plan is to adopt a traffic light
system.
Aims, objectives, goals and targets within the plan
are listed against either;
Red: No or minimal progress made
Amber: Progress has been made although not
complete
Green: Target/aim/objective etc has been
completed successfully
Aim/target/
objective etc
Status
Information
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Required action
Remember…
It is important that all stakeholders are engaged
throughout the process, understand what is
expected so that contributions can be effective in
meeting the needs based aims and objectives of
the business plan. Reviewing, monitoring and
evaluating is vital to success and feeding back
helps keep people up to date and involved.
Over to you and Good luck!!!
Business & Strategic Planning
Useful links and resources
Main resource used to aid this bitesize training course;
Lawrie, A.,2007. The Complete guide to Business and Strategic planning for
voluntary organisations. 3rd ed. London: Directory of Social Change.
Business Link website link
http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1087090196&type=R
ESOURCES
Directory of Social Change Website linkhttp://www.dsc.org.uk/Home
NCVO website link –
http://www.ncvo-vol.org.uk/advice-support/funding-finance/planning
Charities Evaluation Service Website linkhttp://www.ces-vol.org.uk/index.cfm?pg=474
Big Lottery Website link-
http://www.biglotteryfund.org.uk/prog_ypfnat_business_plan.pdf
Business & Strategic Planning

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