chap 10 and normalization and chaps 14 and 13 and 16

Report
The ACID Properties
AND Database
Design: Chapter 10
AND Normal Forms
AND Chapters
13,14,16
ACID Transactions
 Atomic:
Either all of a transaction or None
of it affects the database
 Consistent: When a transaction ends, the
database obeys all constraints
 Isolated: Two running transactions cannot
pass values to each other, via the
database or other data store
 Durable: Once a transaction has
“committed”, its updates are permanent
Atomicity
 Use
a local log to store a transaction’s
partial result
 If a transaction does something illegal,
toss out the log
Consistent
 Check


constraints in phase 1
Some are immediate, like domains
Others don’t have to be true until the
commit point, like FKs
Isolated
 Transactions
commit in a linear order
 Serializability is enforced
 Results become available only after
atomic commit point
Durable
 Database
has one state and it is in
nonvolatile storage
 Keep checkpoints and transaction logs
Deadlock
 Loops
of transactions wait on each other
 Detection: use time-outs
 Prevention: use “waits for” graph
The DB Design Process
 Start
with an entity model
 Map to tables
 Create PKs and FKs
 Create other constraints
 Normalize tables
Our focus: normalization
 Goals


Minimize redundant data
Minimize “update anomalies”
Functional and Multivalued
Dependencies

FD 



MVD->



We say that ai FD-> aj
Or “ai functionally determines aj”
We say that ai MVD-> aj
Or “ai multivalued determines aj”
Note: the right side of an FD or an MVD can
be a set of attributes
First 3 normal forms
 First
(1NF) The value stored at the
intersection of each row and column must
be a scalar value, and a table must not
contain any repeating columns.
 Second (2NF)
Every non-key column
must depend on the entire primary key.
 Third (3NF)
Every non-key column
must depend only on the primary key.
NF3 fixed and NF4
 Boyce-Codd
(BCNF) A non-key column
can’t be dependent on another non-key
column.
 Fourth (4NF)
A table must not have
more than one multivalued dependency,
where the primary key has a one-to-many
relationship to non-key columns.
Example: 1NF
Example: 2NF
Example: 2NF, continued
3NF: remove transitive
dependencies
Customer ID
18
17
16
Address
112 First
123 Ash
123 Ash
ZIP
80304
80303
80303
3NF, continued
Break into two tables:
Customer ID
Address
Address
Zip
4NF: Separate pairs of MVDs
Mothers_Phone Fathers_Phone
Child_Name
Break into: Mothers_Phone Child_Name
3030000000
Sue
3031111111
Sue
And Fathers_Phone
Child_Name
3032222222
Sue
3033333333
Sue
Note: both fields needed for PK
Tradeoffs
 “Decomposition”
makes it harder to
misunderstand the database schema
 But Decomposition create narrow tables
that might not correspond to forms in the
real world
 And Decomposition leads to extra joins

One solution is to pre-join data
Autocommit
 Used
when manipulating a MySQL
database interactively
 Automatically and immediately commits
INSERT UPDATE DELETE commands
 Use the transaction protocol to override
this
Chapter 14:
Transactions in MySQL
A
transaction is the unit of work in a
relational database
 Not available with the MyISAM engine
 InnoDB does support transactions
 Storage engines


InnoDB is the default
MyISAM has no foreign keys, but has full text
search
Transactions
 Often
used within stored procedures,
which are compiled programs that can
be called by an application
 Operations


START TRANSACTION
COMMIT
 ROLLBACK

and SAVEPOINT
Used when you don’t want to undo an
entire transactions
A Transaction
CREATE PROCEDURE test()
BEGIN
DECLARE sql_error TINYINT DEFAULT FALSE;
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR SQLEXCEPTION
SET sql_error = TRUE;
START TRANSACTION; INSERT INTO invoices
VALUES (115, 34, 'ZXA-080', '2012-01-18',
14092.59, 0, 0, 3, '2012-04-18', NULL); INSERT INTO invoice_line_items
VALUES (115, 1, 160, 4447.23, 'HW upgrade');
Continued…
INSERT INTO invoice_line_items
VALUES (115, 2, 167, 9645.36, 'OS upgrade');
IF sql_error = FALSE THEN
COMMIT;
SELECT 'The transaction was committed.';
ELSE
ROLLBACK;
SELECT 'The transaction was rolled back.';
END IF;
END//
Savepoints
USE ap;
START TRANSACTION;
SAVEPOINT before_invoice;
INSERT INTO invoices
VALUES (115, 34, 'ZXA-080', '2012-01-18',
14092.59, 0, 0, 3, '2012-04-18', NULL);
SAVEPOINT before_line_item1;
INSERT INTO invoice_line_items
VALUES (115, 1, 160, 4447.23, 'HW upgrade');
SAVEPOINT before_line_item2;
Continued…
INSERT INTO invoice_line_items
VALUES (115, 2, 167, 9645.36,'OS upgrade');
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT before_line_item2;
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT before_line_item1;
ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT before_invoice;
COMMIT;
Another view of transactions
 Prevents




Lost updates from one of two transactions
Dirty reads when a transaction reads an
uncommitted value
Nonrepeatable reads in one transaction
because the value gets updated in
between
Phantom reads are when a selection query
is run twice in a transaction and returns
different results
Transaction Isolation Leves
 Set



transaction level
Next (no keyword) sets the transaction in
the current session
Session sets all transactions in a session
Global sets all transactions for all sessions
Continued…

Options




Serializable isolates transactions completely and
is the highest level of protection
Read uncommitted lets our four problems occur
– no locks
Read committed prevents dirty reads but allows
the other problems by not allowing
uncommitted writes from being read
Repeatable read is the default and it means
that a transaction will always read a given
value the same because the values are locked
Deadlock
 Detect
by closing transactions that have
been open a long time
 Use the lowest acceptable locking level
 Try to do heavy update transactions when
database can be completely reserved
Stored programs
 Stored
procedures (can be called by an
application)
 Stored functions (can be called by an SQL
program)
 Triggers (tied to an operation like INSERT)
 Events (tied to a clock)
Flow of control in SQL
 IF
- ELSE
 CASE – WHEN - ELSE
 WHILE – DO - LOOP
 REPEAT - UNTIL – END REPEAT
Variables
 DECLARE
statement
 SET statement
 DEFAULT statement
 INTO (from a SELECT clause)
Example (stored procedure)…
CREATE PROCEDURE test()
BEGIN
DECLARE max_invoice_total DECIMAL(9,2);
DECLARE min_invoice_total DECIMAL(9,2);
DECLARE percent_difference DECIMAL(9,4);
DECLARE count_invoice_id INT;
DECLARE vendor_id_var
INT;
SET vendor_id_var = 95;
SELECT MAX(invoice_total), MIN(invoice_total),
COUNT(invoice_id)
INTO max_invoice_total, min_invoice_total,
count_invoice_id
FROM invoices WHERE vendor_id = vendor_id_var;
Example, continued
SET percent_difference =
(max_invoice_total - min_invoice_total) /
min_invoice_total * 100;
SELECT CONCAT('$', max_invoice_total)
AS 'Maximum invoice',
CONCAT('$', min_invoice_total)
AS 'Minimum invoice',
CONCAT('%', ROUND(percent_difference, 2))
AS 'Percent difference',
count_invoice_id AS 'Number of invoices';
END//
Domain types – chapter 8
 Character
 Integers
 Reals
 Date
 Time
 Large
object, BLOB and CLOB
 2D vector spatial types
 Enumerated
Conversion
 Automatic
(implied)
 CAST is the standardized operator
 CONVERT is similar
Cursor syntax

Declare a cursor


Declare an error handler for when no rows are found
in the cursor


OPEN cursor_name;
Get column values from the row and store them
in a series of variables



DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND
handler_statement;
Open the cursor


DECLARE cursor_name CURSOR FOR select_statement;
FETCH cursor_name INTO variable1
[, variable2][, variable3]...;
Close the cursor

CLOSE cursor_name;
Example with a cursor
DELIMITER //
CREATE PROCEDURE test()
BEGIN
DECLARE invoice_id_var INT;
DECLARE invoice_total_var DECIMAL(9,2);
DECLARE row_not_found TINYINT DEFAULT FALSE;
DECLARE update_count
INT DEFAULT 0;
DECLARE invoices_cursor CURSOR FOR
SELECT invoice_id, invoice_total FROM invoices
WHERE invoice_total - payment_total - credit_total > 0;
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND
SET row_not_found = TRUE;
OPEN invoices_cursor;
WHILE row_not_found = FALSE DO
FETCH invoices_cursor
INTO invoice_id_var, invoice_total_var;
Example with a Cursor
IF invoice_total_var > 1000 THEN
UPDATE invoices
SET credit_total
= credit_total + (invoice_total * .1)
WHERE invoice_id = invoice_id_var;
SET update_count = update_count + 1;
END IF;
END WHILE;
CLOSE invoices_cursor;
SELECT CONCAT(update_count, ' row(s) updated.');
END//
Triggers
 ON
event IF precondition THEN action
 All three actions could be SQL

Precondition would be a yes/no, based on
results
 When

are they used?
DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT statements
Syntax of MySQL Triggers:
Chapter 16
CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name
{BEFORE|AFTER} {INSERT|UPDATE|DELETE}
ON table_name
FOR EACH ROW
!! Notice that we can look over the
threshold of a state change!!
Trigger example
CREATE TRIGGER vendors_before_update
BEFORE UPDATE ON vendors
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
SET NEW.vendor_state = UPPER(NEW.vendor_state);
END//
** this puts the field in upper case
UPDATE vendors
SET vendor_state = 'wi'
WHERE vendor_id = 1
** This illustrates a row level trigger
** otherwise, it’s a statement level trigger
Constraint Trigger Example
CREATE TRIGGER invoices_before_update
BEFORE UPDATE ON invoices
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
DECLARE sum_line_item_amount DECIMAL(9,2);
SELECT SUM(line_item_amount)
INTO sum_line_item_amount
FROM invoice_line_items
WHERE invoice_id = NEW.invoice_id;
IF sum_line_item_amount != NEW.invoice_total THEN
SIGNAL SQLSTATE 'HY000'
SET MESSAGE_TEXT =
'Line item total must match invoice total.';
END IF;
END
Examples of Audit Constraints
CREATE TRIGGER invoices_after_insert
AFTER INSERT ON invoices
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
INSERT INTO invoices_audit VALUES
(NEW.vendor_id, NEW.invoice_number,
NEW.invoice_total, 'INSERTED', NOW());
END//
CREATE TRIGGER invoices_after_delete
AFTER DELETE ON invoices
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
INSERT INTO invoices_audit VALUES
(OLD.vendor_id, OLD.invoice_number,
OLD.invoice_total, 'DELETED', NOW());
END//
Key Terms!
 Triggering
events (insert, delete, update)
 Trigger preconditions (basically a where
clause)
 Trigger actions (basically a query)
 Trigger execution (before or after event)

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