The Effects of Parents Reading to and with their Children on Reading Levels, Academic Achievement and Development. Alissa Collins Education 702.22 Seminar in Applied Theory and Research 1 Final Presentation Table of Contents Abstract Introduction -Statement of the Problem -Review of Related Literature -Statement of Hypothesis Method -Participants -Instruments -Experimental Design -Procedure Results Discussion Implications References Appendices Statement of the Problem Many parents do not get to spend adequate amounts of time reading to and with their children at home. These parents are missing out on a bonding and teaching experience and the children are not given the added opportunity to further their reading achievement and development in many different areas as some of their classmates may be doing. Review of Related Literature Positive Effect on Reading Ability Reading achievement in school could be predicted by home literacy activities and how frequently these activities occurred. (Scheffner-Hammer, Farkas & Maczuga, 2010) Students who read harder books in a positive atmosphere at home had higher reading achievement than those who did not. (Baker, Macklet, Sonnenschein & Serpell, 2001) Children have the opportunity to be prepared for school at home. Taking texts read in class home helped to improve reading levels and fluency (Hindin &Paratore, 2007) Review of Related Literature Additional Benefits or “PROS” Shared reading between a parent and a child increases the motivation level and interest in reading for early elementary students. (Otto,1990) Shared reading between a child and parent can positively effect vocabulary and morphological and syntax comprehension. (Senechal, Pagan, Lever & Quellette, 2008) Reading with your child in a positive atmosphere can lead to Higher social and academic achievement later on. (Vandermaas-Peeler, Bumpass & Sassine, 2009) Review of Related Literature “PROS”- The type of Shared Reading can make a difference Reading storybooks paired with manipulatives lead to longer sentences and more complicated speech in young children. (Kaderavek & Justice, 2005) Students with pre-established basic reading skills who engaged in powerful dialogue after reading with a parent showed an improvement in verbal expression and higher listening comprehension. (Lonigan, Anthony, Bloomfield, Dryer & Samuel, 1999) Effects on students with Special Needs (High Risk, Low SES, ESL & ELL) Children with low pre-literacy skills improve reading behaviors but not comprehension after reading with a parent. (Curenton, 2008) In a comparision of high risk and low risk students only low risk students advanced in letter/sound recognition after reading with a parent. (Laasko, Poikkeus, Eklund, Lyytinen, 2004) Children with reading disabilities are not affected by home literacy practices. (Fontina, Morris & Sevcik, 2005) Low-Level students who participated in the Fast Start Reading Program showed more improvement in reading than low-level students in their grade who did not participate. (Rasinski, 2005) Reading at home in your native language can improve vocabulary acquisition in English. (Roberts, 2008) Mothers in disadvantaged communities want information and can have positive reading behaviors and attitudes. What if it doesn’t make a difference? CONS Students who have more books at home do have higher reading levels and scores than students with less books but this is because their parents have higher levels of education and stronger work ethics. (Dubner & Levitt, 2005) United States Department of Education Junior High School students benefit more from reading at school than they do from reading at home. (Taylor, Frye, & Maruyama, 1990) Statement of Hypothesis HR1:This research intends to establish a positive effect of parental reading to and with a child at home on reading levels in school and academic and social achievement and development as a whole. HR2: Teachers can fill the role of a parent. By reading to a small group of students at PS X in Brooklyn over a 6 week period of time, the students will improve one reading level or more. Participants (draft) A small group of parents of students grades K-2 from PS X in Bensonhurst Brooklyn. A small group of students grades K-2 from PS X in Bensonhurst Brooklyn. Instruments (draft) Parent Survey Parents will be asked to answer questions about the frequency, atmosphere, and actions during at home reading with their children. Small guided reading groups students ranging from grades K-2 during extended day period at school. Formal Pre And Post Assessments to determine student reading levels. References Aram, D., & Aviram, S. (2009). Mothers’ Storybook Reading and Kindergarteners’ Socioemotional and Literacy Literacy Development. Reading Psychology, 30. doi: 10.1080/102702710802275348 Baker, L., Macklet, K., Sonnenschein, S., & Serpell, R. (2001). Parent Interaction with Their First Grade Children During Storybook Reading and Relations With Subsequent Home Reading Activity and Reading Achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 39(5). doi:10:1016/S0022-4405(01)00082-6 Curenton, S. M., Justice, L.M. (2008). Children’s Preliteracy Skills: Influence of Mothers’ Education And Beliefs About Shared-Reading Interactions. Early Education and Development, 19. doi: 10.1080/10409280801963939 Dubner, S.J., & Levitt, S,D. Do Parents Matter? USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-05-03-parents-edit_x.htm U.S Department of Education. (2001). Parental Coaching in Child-to-Parent Book Reading: Associations with Parent Values and Child Reading Skill. Minneapolis: Evans, M.A., Bell, M., Mansell, J., & Shaw, D. Fontina, R.L., Morris, R.D., & Sevcik, R.A. (2005). Relationship Between Home Doi: 10.1177/00222194050380010101 Literacy Environment and Reading Achievement in Children with Reading Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38. References Hindin, A., & Paratore, J. R. (2007). Supporting Young Children’s Literary Learning Through Home- School Partnerships: The Effectiveness of a Home Repeated-Reading Intervention. Journal of Literacy Research, 39(3). doi: 1080/10862960701613102 Kaderavek, J. N., & Justice, L.M. (2005). The effect of book genre in the repeated readings of mothers and their children with language impairment: a pilot investigation. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 21. Doi: 10.1191/0265659005ct282oa Laasko, M.L., Poikkeus, A.M., Eklund, K., & Lyytinen, P. (2004). Interest in early Shared reading: It’s relation to later language and letter knowledge in children with and without risk for reading difficulties. First Language, 24, 323-344. Lachner, W., & Zevenbergen, A. (2008). Parent and Child References to Letters During Alphabet Book Readings: Relations to Child Age and Letter Name Knowledge. Early Education and Development, 19. doi: 10.1080/104092802230981 Lonigan, C.J., Anthony, J.L., Bloomfield, B.G., Dyer, S.M., & Samuel, C.S. (1999). Effects of Two Shared-Reading Interventions on Emergent Literacy Skills of At Risk Preschoolers. Journal of Early Intervention, 22. doi:10.1177/1053815119902200406 McNeill, J.H., & Flower, S.A. (1999) Let’s Talk: Encouraging Mother- Child Conversations During Story Reading. Journal of Early Intervention, 22. Doi: 10.1177/105381519902200106 References Mooney, M. (1994). Reading to Children: A Positive Step on the Road to Literacy [Electronic version]. Teaching Pre K-8, 25, 90-92. Morgan, A. (2005). Shared reading interactions between mothers and pre-school Children: Case studies of three dyads from a disadvantaged community. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5. doi: 10.1177//1468798405058689 Norris, C. (1976). Renewed Interest in Piaget and Montessori: Implications for the Teaching of Beginning Reading. Retrieved from ERIC database. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (n.d.) Piaget and Vygotsky. Retrieved from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li1lk21.htm Otis Hurst, C. (1996). Reading with your child at home [Electronic version]. Teaching Pre K-8, 26, 52-54. Otto, B. W. (1990). Development of Innter-City Kindergarteners’ Emergent Literacy In a Read-at-home Program. Resources in Education, 26. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED323527&si te=ehost-live Partridge, H. A. (2004). Helping Parents Make the Most of Shared Book Reading. Early Childhood Education Journal, 32(1), 25-30 Doi:10.1023/B:ECEJ.0000039640.63118.d4 Raban, B., & Nolan, A. (2005). Reading practices experienced by preschool children in areas of disadvantage. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 3. 289-298. Doi: 10.1177/1476718x05056528 References Rasinski, T., & Stevenson, B. (2005). The Effects of Fast Start Reading: A Fluency Based Home Involvement Reading Program on the Reading Achievement of Beginning Readers. Reading Psychology An International Quarterly, 26(2). doi: 10.1080/02702710590930483 Roberts, T.A. (2008). Home Storybook Reading in Primary or Second Language With Pre School Children. Evidence of Equal Effectiveness for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition.[Electronic Verson] Reading Reseach Quarterly, 43(2), 103-130. Saint-Laurent, L., & Giasson, J. (2005). Effects of a family literacy program adapting Parental intervention to first graders’ evolution of reading and writing abilities. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5. doi: 10.1177/146879840508688 Scheffner Hammer, C., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2010). The Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Databases [Electronic version]. Journal of Language, Speech & Hearing Services In Schools, 41, 70-83. Senechal, M., Pagan, S., Lever, R., & Quellette, G.P.. (2008). Relations Among the Frequency of Shared Reading and 4-year old Children’s Vocabulary, Morphological and Syntax Comprehension, and Narrative Skills. Early Education and Development, 19. doi: 10.1080/10409280701838710 Taylor, B.M., Frye, B.J., & Maruyama, G.M. (1990). Time spent Reading and Reading Growth. American Educational Research Journal, 27 Doi: 10:3102/00028312027002351 Vandermaas-Peeler, M., Nelson, J., Bumpass, C., & Sassine, B. (2009). Social contexts of development: Parent-child interactions during reading and play. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9, 295-317. Doi: 10.1177/1468798409345112 Appendix A Consent Forms (draft) Dear Principal X, As a graduate student at Brooklyn College earning a Masters of Science in Childhood Education I am required to develop and run an Action Research Project I would like to investigate the effects that reading between a parent and a child has on the child’s academic achievement, development and most importantly reading level. I am asking for permission to survey the parents of the students in my “Extended Day” or AIS group about their at home reading routines with their children, as well as to run small guided reading groups and activities during this period three times a week. I intend to conduct these groups for approximately 6-8 weeks from October through early December. Thank you for your cooperation and I look forward to having your insight and assistance as this research project develops. Sincerely Alissa Collins Dear Parents, As a graduate student at Brooklyn College I will be completing an Action Research Project in my final semester. I am looking at the effects of parental involvement in regards to reading at home on a child’s reading level at school as well as other areas of academic achievement and all around development. To assist me in finding the effects that reading at home has on your child in school I am asking that you fill out a simple survey about how much time you and your child spend reading together and other literacy activities in the home. I thank you in advance for your support. Sincerely Miss Collins Appendix B Parent Survey 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) (draft) Do you read with your child at home? If so how much time on average per week is spent reading to or with your child in the home? Do you do a majority of the reading or does your child? Or is it shared reading? Does your child tend to enjoy the time spent reading with you? What steps are taken to ensure this reading experience is as enjoyable for both you and your child as possible? What types of books does your son or daughter enjoy the most? Is reading at night a daily occurrence that your child looks forward to? Do you read to your child in any languages other than English? Do you ask any types of questions during the reading of a book or is just for pure entertainment? Do you make any corrections to mistakes your child may make while reading? If asked to do so would you be willing to log the amount of time and the book read with your child each week for a 6-8 week period?