Chapter 30:The Reformation Begins Essential question: What factors led to the weakening of the Catholic Church and the beginning of the Reformation. Jimmy Rettenmeier,Keith Everette, John Pitzer,CJ Hoffman, Hannah Burke, and Laura Angulo Learning Targets: • • • • I can summarize corrupt practices and key events that weakened The Catholic Church. I can describe the theological, political, and religious ideas of major figures during the Reformation. I can understand Martin Luther's theological and political ideas and how they led to the Reformation. I can examine factors that contributed to the spread of Protestant ideas throughout Europe. The Reformation was a religious reform movement from the early 1500s to the 1600s that led to the formation of new Christian groups. The Reformation took place in western Europe. The main factor that weakened the Church and led to the beginning of the Reformation was the humanism of the Renaissance. The Church hadn't always live up to their values in the following ways: many people were breaking their vows, people weren't following Christian values, Church officials were acting like royalty rather than God's servants, Popes were selling indulgences to raise money for the Church, Church positions were being sold, pilgrims were charged by the clergy to see holy objects, and people didn't like paying taxes to Rome and the Church. The Church came into conflicts with European leaders because the clergy claimed that they were free of the of political leader's control. Popes also argued with monarchs over land for the Church. The French king had more power over the papacy and anything that involved politics. 30.2 Vocab Indulgence- a grant by the Catholic Church that released a person from punishment for sins. Simony- the selling and buying of positions in the Catholic Church. John Wycliffe lived for 54 years(1330-1384). John Wycliffe had many life events including:being a London scholar, he was bold, he stood up for what he believed in when the Church was taking money from England, he still believed that the bible was over the Church officials, his followers were burned with his writings, the pope accused him of heresy, and his ideas influenced many people. H affected the church by standing up to the Church when it was taking money from Jan Hus Jan Hus lived for 45 years(1370-1415). Jan Hus was burned at the stake in 1415.45. He was also a follower of John Wycliffe, was a priest in bohemia, he lived in Czech Republic, and he thought that the Church was becoming a for-profit business, rather than what it should be. He was quoted saying "The true head of the Church is Jesus Christ". Jan Hus affected the church by going by John Wycliffe's beliefs and telling everyone that Jesus Christ was the head of Catherine of Siena Catherine of Siena lived to be 33(1347-1380). She was devoted to religion, she was born in Siena, Italy, she started having visions of Jesus when she was a child, she was very involved in church affairs, in 1461 she was declared a saint by the Church, she helped people with the Reformation, and she wrote many letters about spiritual life. She affected the Church by showing people that they could live spiritual lives that went farther than the customs of the Church. She also Desiderius Erasmus Erasmus lived up to 70(1466-1536). Erasmus was a humanist from Holland, priest and devoted catholic, in 1506 he wrote "The Praise of Folly", a document satirically mocking the Church. He argued for a return to simple christian goddess. He wished to reform the Church and angrily battled accusations that he was a protestant. Many people left the Church because of him and his opposing of catholic corruption. He caused Luther to become an opponent of the 30.3 Vocab Reformation- a religious reform movement from the early 1500s to the 1600s that led to the formation of new Christian groups. Protestant- a Christian who separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation; today, any member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation. Martin Luther was born in Germany in the early 1500s. Martin Luther became a monk because when he was a small boy he was caught in a bad thunderstorm and promised God if he made it out alive he would become a monk. Luther also thought that the only way to reach salvation was through faith in God, this was a conflict with the Church though. In 1517 Pope Leo had gone to London's citizens to get money to build a new cathedral. Luther had also thought that God 30.4 Vocab Martin Luther- a German priest who broke away from the Catholic Church to start his own religion, Lutheranism. His posting of the Ninety-Five Theses started the Reformation. Denomination- a particular religious group within a larger faith; for example, Lutheranism is one denomination within Christianity. 30.5 Other Leaders of the Reformation The five leaders of the Reformation were: Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, King Henry VIII, William Tyndale, and Martin Luther. Zwingli was influenced by Erasmus and Luther. John Calvin emphasized that salvation came only from God's grace. King Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church for two reasons. One- He wanted to end his first marriage, but the pope denied him a divorce. Two- He didn't want to share power with and wealth with the Church anymore. Tyndale converted because his views became more and more protestant, so he attacked corruption at the Catholic Church and defended the English Reformation. He was punished by being arrested, spending over a year in prison, and finally being burned at the stake in 1536. Other Vocab Saints- someone officially recognized as holy by the Catholic Church. Doctrine- a belief or set of beliefs, especially relating to religion. Treaty- a written agreement between two or more nations.