With Human Patient Simulation
Presented by:
Joanne McDermott
 Nursing schools must balance theoretical
knowledge acquisition and transferability
with clinical experience opportunities to
improve students' abilities to transition to
safe beginning practitioners in the nursing
Research Topic:
 Effectiveness of human patient
simulation experiences in increasing
contextual knowledge and clinical
reasoning skills in undergraduate
nursing students.
Theoretical Frameworks:
 John Dewey: Theory of Experience
 Piaget: Cognitive Development
 Humans learn through the construction of
progressively complex logical structures, from infancy
through to adulthood.
 Constructivist education is based on this premise of
successive knowledge-building that increases in depth
and complexity
John Dewey
•Called for education to be
grounded in real experience.
•"If you have doubts about
how learning happens, engage
in sustained inquiry: study,
ponder, consider alternative
possibilities and arrive at your
belief grounded in evidence."
•Inquiry is a key part of
constructivist learning
And then there were more…
 There are many other educators, philosophers,
psychologists, and sociologists who have added new
perspectives to constructivist learning theory.
 Among them are:
Lev Vygotsky
 Jerome Bruner
 introduced the social aspect of learning into
 defined the "zone of proximal learning”
 students solve problems beyond their actual
developmental level (but within their level of potential
development) under adult guidance or in collaboration
with more capable peers.
 Initiated curriculum change based on the
notion that learning is an active, social
process in which students construct new
ideas or concepts based on their current
Human Patient Simulations
 problem-solving and inquiry-based learning activity
 students formulate and test their ideas, draw
conclusions and inferences
 pool and convey their knowledge in a collaborative
learning environment.
 guided by the teacher, students construct their
knowledge actively.
Human Patient Simulations
 High fidelity mannequins can imitate a patients
physiologic as well as human responses to disease
METI iStan in Grey's Anatomy
Human Patient Simulations
 encouraging students to use
active techniques (experiments,
real-world problem solving) to
create more knowledge
 teacher understands the
students' preexisting
conceptions, and guides the
activity to address them and
then build on them.
 reflect on how their
understanding is changing.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Hetzel-Campbell, S. & Daley, K. ( 2009). Simulation scenarios for nurse educators: Making it real, New York: Springer
Publishing Co.
Mufioz Rosario, R. A. & Widmeyer, G. (2009). An exploratory review of design principles in constructivist gaming
learning environments. J Inf Syst Educ, 20 (3).
Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking. U.S.A.: Basic Books, Inc.
Powell, K.C. & Kauna, C. J. (Wint 2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: developing tools for an effective
classroom. Education, 130 (2).
Schlairet,M.C. and Pollock, J.W. (2010). Equivalence testing of traditional and simulated clinical experiences:
undergraduate nursing students’ knowledge acquisition. J Nurs Educ, 49 (1).
Splitter, Laurance J. (2009) Authenticity and Constructivism in Education. Stud Philos Educ 28:135–151 DOI
Waxman, K.T. (2010) The development of evidence-based clinical simulation scenarios: guidelines for nurse educators.
J Nurs Educ, 49 (1).

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