why cities? - Netwerc H2O

Report
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Improving Implementation Capacities of Cities
and Regions by sharing best practices on Urban
Water Cycle Services
STATEMENT
“The water crisis is a crisis in governance.
We will promote better water governance arrangements
and transparency, building on stronger partnerships
between governments, civil society and the private sector.”
Former Commission President Romano Prodi
at the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable
Development
THEME
“The world is walking towards a crisis that it barely recognises.
In scale and significance, it dwarfs all the others it is intricately
connected with. This issue is water. As unbelievable as it
sounds, we are running out of it and the window we have to
solve this issue is narrow and rapidly closing. We will fail to
feed the world until we fix the water crisis”
Peter Brabeck-Letmathe,
Chairman of the Board at Nestlé S.A.
URGENCY
Competing demands for scarce water
resources may lead to an estimated 40%
supply shortage by 2030
(2030 Water Resources Group 2009).
2030 Water Resources Group (2009) Charting our water future.
Economic framework to inform decision-making. West Perth, USA.
http://www.mckinsey.com/App_Media/Reports/Water/Charting_Our
_Water_Future_Full_Report_001.pdf.
1. WHY CITIES?
Cities are concentrated centers of production,
consumption, and waste disposal that drive land
change and a host of global environmental problems
and are highly dependent on other cities and
hinterlands to supply materials (including water),
energy, and to dispose waste.
Grimm et al., 2008. Science 319 (5864), 756-760.
Bai, 2007. Journal of Industrial Ecology 11, 1-6.
Engel et al., 2011. World Wildlife Fund, Germany.
URBANISATION
Urban areas of the world are expected
to absorb all the population growth
expected over the next four decades.
By 2050, urban dwellers will likely
account for 86 % of the population in
the more developed regions and for 64
% of that in the less developed regions
CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change may worsen water
services and quality of life in cities.
WATER USE AND WATER SCARCITY
Water withdrawals have tripled over
the last 50 years. In 2030, there will
be a 40% supply shortage of water.
SANITATION
Currently, 2.5 billion people are
without improved sanitation
facilities.
HUMAN HEALTH
Currently, 3.4 million people - mostly
children – die from water-borne
diseases every year.
HAZARDS
Water-related hazards account for
90% of all natural hazards.
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM (2013)
Recently, the World Economic Forum identified the
water supply crisis as one of the top five global
risks for both the impact and likelihood. This is
caused by the decline in the quality and quantity of
fresh water combined with increased competition
among resource-intensive systems, such as food
and energy production (World Economic Forum
2013).
MAKE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURES MORE SUSTAINABLE TO
HELP DRIVE A GREEN ECONOMY
An estimated US$ 41 trillion is required to refurbish the old
and build new urban infrastructures over the period 2005–
2030:
• $22.6 trillion for water systems
• $9 trillion for energy
• $7.8 trillion for road and rail infrastructure
• $1.6 trillion for air- and sea-ports
1 trillion means 1 thousand billions (1012)
(Source: UNEP City-level decoupling, 2013)
GOVERNANCE: PEOPLE MATTER
Governance has emerged as a concept in political science, sustainability science and
other fields as a response to the growing awareness that governments are no longer the
only relevant actors when it comes to the management of societal issues (Lange et al.,
2013)
As stated in the report of the European Green City Index (2009) about three-quarters of
the existing technological changes that would help London to meet its long-term carbon
reduction targets depended on the decisions of citizens or companies, not of
governments.
Public participation, i.e. the engagement of individuals with societies around them —
or the strength of civil society in a city — has a strong link to environmental
performance (see next slide).
SOURCE: EUROPEAN GREEN CITY INDEX 2009
EARLY INVOLVEMENT OF STAKEHOLDERS
SOURCE: ICLEI/SWITCH
WHY CITIES? THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY
1. Cities are the major problem holders
2. Active civil societies incl. the private sector with visionary
local government can cope with water challenges
3. It requires a bottom-up approach and collaboration among
cities and regions by sharing best practices (communication
on implementation)
2. GOAL?
TOWARDS TRANSITIONS OF CITIES
URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT TRANSITIONS FRAMEWORK (SOURCE: BROWN ET AL. 2009)
3. HOW?
PLANNING CYCLE ACCORDING TO SWITCH
(MANAGING WATER IN THE CITY OF THE FUTURE)
ICLEI/SWITCH
PROPOSED EIP WATER ACTION:
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
FACILITATE
STRATEGIC
1. Baseline assessment (City Blueprint)
2. Inventory of best practices of cities
3. Blue City Website for sharing best practices and
state-of-the art technologies applied in cities
4. Blue City Award (annual ceremony hosted by the European
Commission)
5. Blue Friend labels for industries and their products
contributing to cost-effective improvements in UWCS
ENERGY NEUTRAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT FACILITY IN THE CITY OF
HAMBURG (GERMANY)
4. THE BASELINE ASSESSMENT
Dar es Salaam (4.01)
Bucharest (5.18)
Reggio Emilia (6.60)
Hamburg (7.72)
RESULTS FOR 11 CITIES/REGIONS
There is a positive relation between the Blue City Index
(BCI) and the:
• Voluntary Participation Index (r = 0.727)
• UWCS ambitions and measures (r = 0.904)
• GDP according to IMF (r = 0.927)
• Government effectiveness – World Bank (r = 0.927)
• Number of Happy Life Years - Erasmus Univ. (r = 0.950)
Where, r is the Pearson correlation coefficient
15 CITIES HAVE PARTICIPATED SO FAR (1ST OF JULY, 2013)
Algarve (ALG; Portugal)
Oslo (OSL; Norway)
Amsterdam (AMS; the Netherlands)
Rotterdam (ROT; theNetherlands)
Athens (ATH; Greece)
Reggio Emilia (REG; Italy)
Bucharest (BUC; Romania)
Cities of Scotland (SCO;United Kingdom)
Dar es Salaam (DAR;Tanzania)
Venlo (NL)
Hamburg (HAM; Germany)
Maastricht (NL)
Kilamba Kiaxi (KIL; Angola)
Melbourne (Australia)
Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
5. THE MOST IMPORTANT
CONCLUSION:
THE GREAT POTENTIAL OF
SHARING BEST PRACTICES
AMONG CITIES
IMPLEMENTATION MATTERS: THE RESULT OF COMBINING
BEST PRACTICES IN 11 CITIES – BLUE CITIES
CONCLUSIONS
1. Megatrends (e.g. population growth, pollution, climate change) pose urgent water challenges in
cities.
2. The City Blueprint is a quick scan to benchmark UWCS.
3. City Blueprints can be used to communicate a city’s UWCS and select:
• appropriate supply and sanitation strategies.
• (non) technological options as future alternatives.
• measures for short-term and long-term investments.
4. The BCI correlates positively with the VPI, GDP, UWCS ambitions in cities, Government Effectiveness
and Happy Life Years.
5. Cities are problem holders; they can learn from each other and become part of the UWCS solutions.
6. Blue friend labels for industries and their technologies and products that contribute to the
improvement of UWCS.
7. Need for an EIP Action on Cities
NEXT STEPS
1. EIP-Water action on governance (City Blueprints)
2. Extension of work on European Cities (assessment of least another 10
cities in 2013)
3. Sharing best practices among cities
4. Workshop with EIP stakeholders (November)
5. Setting up a Blue City Website
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Improving Implementation Capacities of Cities and Regions by sharing best practices on
Urban Water Cycle Services
EIP WATER ACTION GROUP PARTNERS
NETWERC H2O (EU) – KWR WATER CYCLE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (THE NETHERLANDS) –
FUNDACIÓ CTM CENTRE TECNOLÒGIC (SPAIN) - ADVENTECH (PORTUGAL) – COPERNICUS
INSTITUTE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (UNIVERSITY OF UTRECHT) – SIEMENS (THE
NETHERLANDS) – ERRIN (EU) – RED ARAGON 7 PM (SPAIN) – ZINNAE (SPAIN) – AMGA (ITALY)
– PARAGON EUROPE (MALTA) – USBMA (MOROCCO) – REGIONE PUGLIA (ITALY) –
ACQUEDOTTO PUGLIESE (ITALY) – AUTORITA’ IDRICA PUGLIESE (ITALY) – DE MONTFORT
UNIVERSITY (UNITED KINGDOM) –WITTEVEEN EN BOS (THE NETHERLANDS) – DELTARES (THE
NETHERLANDS) – ENEA (ITALY) – REDINN (ITALY) - LEITAT (SPAIN) – DEMOWARE CONSORTIUM
(EU) – WORLD BANK (THE USA) – REGIONE TOSCANA (ITALY) – MINISTRY OF ENERGY AND
WATER (STATE OF ISRAEL) – EASTON WATER CONSULTING (BELGIUM)
PLEASE PARTICIPATE AND CONTACT US
CITY BLUEPRINTS
Improving Implementation Capacities of Cities and Regions by sharing
best practices on Urban Water Cycle Services
POLITICAL COORDINATOR
Richard Elelman
Head of Public Administrations at Fundació CTM
Centre Tecnològic and Administrative Director of
NETWERC H2O
Av. Bases de Manresa, 1. 08242 Manresa,
Spain
T +34 93 877 7373
F +34 93 877 73 74
M +34 608 54 55 28
E [email protected]
W www.ctm.com.es / www.netwerch2o.eu
Skype: richardelelman
TECHNICAL COORDINATOR
Cornelis Johannes (Kees) van Leeuwen
Chair Water Management and Urban Development
Principal Scientist at KWR Watercycle Research
Institute
P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein
The Netherlands
T +31 30 6069617
F +31 30 6061165
M +31 652041795
E [email protected]
W www.kwrwater.nl
Skype: leeuwke47
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Most of the work has been carried out within the EU Research Project TRUST
(Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow). We would like to thank all
collaborative teams involved the assessment of cities by completing the
questionnaire for the baseline assessment and their feedback on earlier versions
of this document: Helena Lucas, José Gascão, Joaquim Freire, Maria João
Freitas, António Jorge Monteiro, Christos Makropoulos, Vittorio Di Federico,
Thomas Giese, Kim Augustin, Niles-Peter Bertram,Ingrid Heemskerk, Paulien
Hartog, Brian Sewbaks, Jadranka Milina, Rita Ugarelli, Paul Jeffrey, Heather
Smith, George Ponton, Colin O’Neill,Gabriela Mercore, Daniel Goedbloed,
António Jorge Monteiro and Philipo Chandy. I would also like to thank Marielle
van de Zouwen, Jos Frijns, Theo van de Hoven, Peter Dane, Merijn Schriks,
Nicoline Scholman, Rui Cunha Marques, Sveinung Sagrov, and the project
leader of TRUST, i.e. David Schwesig for their major contributions to the work
described in this manuscript. The European Commission is acknowledged for
funding TRUST in the 7th Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No.
265122.
REFERENCES
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Brown, R.R., Keath, N., Wong, T.H.F. ,2009. Urban water management in cities: historical, current
and future regimes. Water Sci. Technol. 59,847–855.
European Green City Index 2009., Assessing the environmental impact of Europe’s major cities. A
research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Siemens München, Germany.
Fleming, N., 2008. Understanding ‘what’s really going on’ as a basis for transforming thinking,
action and our cities. Paper presented at Enviro 08 Australasia’s Environmental & Sustainability
Conference & Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
Lange et al., 2013. Governing towards sustainability—Conceptualizing modes of Governance. J.
Environmental Policy & Planning 15.3:403-425.
TRUST: http://www.trust-i.net/ and http://www.trust-i.net/downloads/index.php?iddesc=68
SWITCH: http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/
Van Leeuwen, C.J., Frijns, J., van Wezel, A., van de Ven, F.H.M. 2012. Water Resources
Management 26:2177-2197.
Van Leeuwen, C.J., Chandy, P.C. 2013. The city blueprint: experiences with the implementation of
24 indicators to assess the sustainability of the urban water cycle Water Sci. Technol.: Water
Supply 13.3: 769-781.
PHOTOGRAPHS: Philip, R. et al., Module 1 - Strategic Planning & Anton, B. et al., Module 2 Stakeholders, SWITCH Training Kit: IUWM in the City of the Future, published by ICLEI
European Secretariat (2011) - www. switchtraining.eu.

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