chomp! chomp! This presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, ©2015 by Robin L. Simmons. Spelling I before E? Or is it E before I? This presentation covers commonly misspelled words and knowledge of spelling rules— all of which, unfortunately, have exceptions! Spelling items on an objective test might look like these ... Sample Item 1 Because we were hungry, hungary, we hungary, we wecould could couldnot not not AA concentrate on the lecture. We will definitely definitely B consult Wanda since she was fueling fuelingher herbrain brain C with a fruit smoothie. Hungry is Is hungary, definitely definitely, or misspelled, but fueling choice A misspelled? corrects it! A. hungry hungry B. definately C. feuling D. No change is necessary. Sample Item 2 At the flea market, Harold bought fresh tomatoes, a pair of used jeans, and a stuffed deer head with a broken antler. He considered the shopping trip successfull. A. succesful B. successful successful C. sucessful D. No change is necessary. IsChoice successfull B does the job—twoIfcso, s, misspelled? two which ss,choice but only one l. it? corrects At many objective exams, you can not use a dictionar y! X W hen in doubt, rely on “gut” feelings. Your eyes have seen in print—and your brain has registered —all of the possible words that you will encounter for this skill. If you don’t recognize the right answer, go with the one that feels right. Hey, I know that word! Plurals, Par t 1 • Most words become plural by adding s: chickenchickens, bookbooks, kitekites • Use es for words ending in s, sh, x, z, or “soft” ch: beachbeaches, fixfixes, quizquizzes To finish his algebra problem , Chadneeded neededtoto problem,sChad find his glass glass.es. Do you like my funky lenses? Plurals, Par t 2 • Words ending in a vowel + o become plural by adding s: rodeorodeos, duoduos • Words ending in a consonant + o become plural by adding es: tomatotomatoes, heroheroes Our ears were glued to the radiosasaswe welistened listenedtoto news about the tornado tornado.es. Take cover! Plurals, Par t 3 • Many words that end in f or fe become plural with ves: leafleaves, lifelives, knifeknives • Words that end in ff or ffe become plural with just an s: knockoffknockoffs, giraffegiraffes Our lilife ves would improve if the giraffes quit the would improve if the giraffs quit eating eating lea ves off our shrubs. leafs offthe our shrubs. Stop that! Final Y Wor ds • If you have consonant + final y, change the y to i when you add any suffix except one beginning with i: easyeasily, fiftyfiftieth, skyskies • If you have vowel + final y, keep the y when you add a suffix: monkeymonkeys, toytoys Chad tryed triedtotosave savehis hismoney, money,but butthe theflea fleamarket market had too many good buy. buys. I’m a sucker for “Buy 3, Get 1 Free”! Final E Wor ds • If a suffix begins with a vowel, you will usually remove the final e: hopehoping, loveloving, participateparticipating • If a suffix begins with a consonant, you will usually keep the final e: lovelovely, amuseamusement, hopehopeful Climbing Climbing to tothe thetop topof ofthe themountain mountain was was too too challenging, sowe wegave gaveup upand andwallowed wallowedinin challengeing, so discouragement . discouragment. We were so close! Doubling Final Consonants • If you have a one-syllable word that ends in vowel + consonant, double the consonant when you add a suffix that begins with a vowel or is a y: sadsaddened, swimswimming, skinskinny • If you have a multi-syllable word that ends in vowel + consonant —with the accent falling on the last syllable of the root word—double the consonant: admitadmitted, beginbeginner, forbidforbidding Read this sample: Chad steped stepped a puddle slipped off in ainpuddle andand sliped off the sidewalk. He regreted regretted clumsiness his his clumsiness when he spoted spotted mud stain pants. thethe mud stain on on hishis pants. Whoa! IE/EI Wor ds • Often, i comes before e: belief, chief, review • If the i and e follow c, they usually reverse: cei ling, concei ve, recei ve • E also precedes i if the sound is a long a: ei ght, nei ghbor, wei gh Chad is concieted conceited about bulging veins about thethe bulging viens in in his rippling muscles. He beleives believes that that allall of of the females are admiring his great physique. Let me flex my biceps! Quick Test Directions: In the items that follow, choose the option that corrects an error in the underlined portion(s). If no error exists, choose “No change is necessary.” Show me what you know! Item 1 Carlos hopped hoppedthat hoped that thathe he hecaught caught caughtall all allof of ofthe the the AA misspellings ininhis misspellings hisessay, essay,for forhehewanted wantedtoto B receive an receive an AA on on this this paper. paper. C A. hoped hoped B. mispellings C. recieve D. No change is necessary. Item 2 The thieves thievesplanned plannedto tosteal stealMom’s Mom’sexpensive expensive A jewellry but jewellry jewelry butchanged changedtheir theirminds mindswhen whenthey they BB discovered Big Boy, our Rottweiler, guarding guardingthe the C master bedroom. A. theives B. jewelry jewelry C. guardding D. No change is necessary. Item 3 When we told Sheila that her boyfriend Ronnie accompanied Kristine accompanied Kristinetotoaafancy fancyrestaurant restaurant last last A B night, Sheila told us to mind our own business. bussiness. bussiness. CC A. accompanyed B. resterant C. business business D. No change is necessary. Item 4 I don’t mind sharing a dessert with Matthew, but I must insist on a sepparate sepparate fork. fork. A. separate separate B. seperate C. saperate D. No change is necessary. Item 5 Professor Williams recommends recommendsstuding studing studying two two two A B hours every night; we students wish we had the time but must work to pay for the expensive expensive C textbooks that he requires. A. reccomends B. studying studying C. espensive D. No change is necessary. Item 6 All day long, our new puppy Jack sleeps on the rug, but at night, he is possesed possesed by byenergy energyand and bounces off the furniture. A. posessed B. possested C. possessed possessed D. No change is necessary. Item 7 Ramón wishes wishs that wishs that that the the the lovely lovely lovely Belinda Belinda Belinda would would would blow blow blow A kisses his kisses hisway, way,but buthe heisisalways alwaysdisappointed. disappointed. B C A. wishes wishes B. kissess C. dissappointed D. No change is necessary. Item 8 To please his wife, Robert swept off the roof, even though he found this chore pointless and unnecessary. unnecessary. A. unecessary B. unnecessery C. unneccessary D. No change changeisisnecessary. necessary. Item 9 Patrick tried to make Babushka’s potato potatoe potatoe AA pancakes, but we found them inedible; inedible;everyone everyone B wished he had made simple French fries fries instead. instead. C A. potato potato B. ineddible C. frys D. No change is necessary. Item 10 Look at Jonathan’s face turning red—that boy embarasses easily! embarasses easily! A. embarrases B. emmbarasses C. embarrasses embarrasses D. No change is necessary. The End.