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Chapter 4
Salads and
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
The three keys to ensuring a quality salad are:
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________
The four basic parts to most salads are:
1. BASE___________________________________________________________
2. BODY___________________________________________________________
3. GARNISH________________________________________________________
4. DRESSING_______________________________________________________
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Types of Salad
 Proper handwashing is critical before preparing salads.
 The five main types of salad are:
The two types of green salad are ________ and __________ (or
mixed). Prepare all ingredients individually for either salad.
Prepare the _____________ from cooked primary ingredients
such as meat, poultry, fish, egg, or starch such as potato, pasta, or
Prepare a _______________ from cooked and/or raw vegetables.
Prepare a ______________ from fruit using a slightly sweet or
sweet/sour dressing to enhance the flavor.
A ______________________ incorporates a combination of any
of the four salad types.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Salads and Service
 Salads can be used in five ways during the service courses:
A _____________ salad, served as an appetizer to the main meal,
is smaller in portion and consists of light, fresh, crisp ingredients to
stimulate the appetite.
Serve an ______________salad, or side salad, with the main
course of the meal, and make it light and flavorful, but not too rich.
_________________ salads are large enough to serve as a full
meal and may contain protein ingredients, such as meat, poultry,
seafood, egg, beans, or cheese.
The _____________ salad is intended to be a palate cleanser
after a rich dinner and before dessert.
_______________ salads are usually sweet and often contain
fruits, sweetened gelatin, nuts, cream, and whipped cream.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Cleaning and Storing Salads
 The key to preparing good-tasting, interesting, attractive
salads is to start with clean, fresh ingredients.
 Always thoroughly wash greens because dirt can lodge
between leaves.
 After the greens are clean, proper storage is essential to
keeping them fresh.
 Proper storage ensures the quality of the product served
to the guest.
 All labels on stored containers should include the name
of the item, weight, date received, name of person
storing the product, and the original use-by date, if any.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Section 4.1 Summary
 Lettuce is frequently used as a salad base, but any number of
ingredients can be used in a salad.
 The basic parts of a salad are the
 The five basic types of salad are
 The five basic salads that can be served throughout the course
of a meal are
 To clean salads, remove the outer leaves of greens, pull apart
the remaining leaves, and rinse them thoroughly to remove any
and all dirt, grit, and insects.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Types of Dressing
 The primary salad dressings are:
 ________________dressing in its simplest form is made of oil
and vinegar. Vinaigrettes are lighter, thinner dressings often used
on more delicate ingredients, such as greens and vegetables.
 Compared to the suspension mixture of regular vinaigrettes,
________________________have gone through the emulsion
process. An emulsion is a mixture of ingredients that
permanently stays together, unlike a suspension that eventually
 __________________________dressings are typically creamy
dressings, such as Russian, thousand island, and blue cheese.
 _________________ is the most stable and thickest emulsified
dressing. It contains a higher ratio of oil to vinegar and a greater
quantity of egg yolks than is required for emulsified vinaigrette.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
A dip is a flavorful mixture that accompanies certain foods.
 Like salad dressings, dips should complement or
enhance a food’s flavor.
 A dip must have the proper consistency. A dip should be
soft enough to scoop up with a cracker, chip, or
vegetable, but thick enough to stay on it.
 Ethnic variations of special salads and accompaniments
are very popular as dips:
 Guacamole: Avocado dip (________ origin).
 Salsa: Peppers, such as jalapeño or serrano, onions, and
tomatoes (_________).
 Hummus: Chick pea with garlic and tahini (___________).
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Section 4.2 Summary
 The four main salad dressings are
 An _________ is the permanent blending of unlike
ingredients, such as oil and vinegar.
 Vinaigrettes are ______________dressings used on more
delicate ingredients, like salad greens.
 A ______ is a mixture served as an accompaniment to
certain foods. Like salad dressings, dips are meant to
complement or enhance the foods they are served with, not
hide the flavor of the food.
 ______________________________are examples of
popular ethnic dips.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Why and How
 Proper garnish complements the main dish in
 Garnish should enhance the flavor of a dish.
 Preparation of garnishes is an essential part of the dish.
 Some garnishes can be prepared in bulk for use when
plating and finishing both hot and cold items.
 What garnish to use depends not only on the food being
but also on how the food is laid out on the plate.
 The purpose of plate presentation is
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Garnishing Dessert
 Consider the flavor, texture, and appearance of the item
being garnished when garnishing desserts.
 Numerous items can be used to garnish desserts
Fruit coulis in many varieties
Whipped cream, flavored and unflavored
Frosted mint leaves
Chocolate work in the form of string work or formed pieces
Spun sugar work
Sweet sauces
 The overall impact of the garnish on the appearance of
the dessert is driven by the way the garnish is presented.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Garnishing Soups
 Garnishes for soups are classified into
three groups:
 Garnishes _______________are the actual
ingredients. All garnishes must enhance
both the flavor and appearance of the soup.
 Add ________ to soups as a garnish as
well. Place any topping on the soup
immediately before service because it will
either melt or sink to the bottom.
 Garnishes in the form of ____________with
soups include crackers, melba toast, corn
chips, breadsticks, cheese straws, wholegrain wafers, and gougères.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing
Section 4.3 Summary
 Enjoyment of a meal is affected by how it looks. If food has
eye appeal, then enjoyment of the meal will go up.
 Garnishing properly is essential when presenting food. The
garnish will complement the main dish in color, flavor, and
 Garnish enhances the flavor of a dish as well as its eye
 Garnishing desserts requires consideration of the flavor,
texture, and appearance of the item being garnished.
 Garnishes for soups are classified into three groups—
garnishes in the soup, garnishes topping the soup, and
garnishes that accompany the soup on the side.
Chapter 4 | Salads and Garnishing

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