Fuel specification and classes BioNorm II

Report
ISO 17225-pellets standards
New international standards for
residential and industrial pellets
November 2013
Principal scientist Eija Alakangas, VTT
Convenor of WG2 for CEN/TC 335 and ISO/TC 238
© Eija Alakangas, VTT
European and international framework for solid biofuel
standardisation
Legislation
Standardisation
No barriers to trade
WTO
ISO/TC 238
Solid biofuels
Vienna
agreement*
Mandate
European
Commission
Standards
CEN/TC 335
Solid biofuels
Results
Information to market
actors of solid biofuels
2
Supporting
EU-funded
projects
* ISO standards will be published as EN ISO standards in Europe
© Eija Alakangas, VTT
2
European (EN) pellet standards published
 EN 14961-1 General requirements
− Include all biomass raw materials
− Flexible classification, each property selected separatetely
− Include classification of raw material, which is needed for the product
standards
 Product standard EN 14961-2 Wood pellets for non-industrial use
− Properties are bound together to class A1, A2 and B
− ENplus certification system is based on this standard with some
exceptions
 Product standard EN 14961-6 Non-woody pellet for non-industrial use
 EN 14961-2 and 6 standards are targeted for non-industrial use in small-scale
appliances, such as, households, small commercial and public sector
buildings.
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Solid biofuels standardisation progress
during 2000 - 2013
ISO
EN
CEN/TS
weighed votes
3 years in force
Prepared during
2000-2006
European standards
EN (36 published)
National standards
withdrawn
Technical
specifications
(27 published)
National standards
in force
2000
© Eija Alakangas, VTT
2004
International standards
(≈60 under preparation)
European standards will be
superseded by ISO standards
other countries make their own
national decisions
1 vote each country
2 years preparation time
3 years in force
Prepared 2009-2015
weighed votes
5 years in force
Prepared 2007-2012
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
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International pellet standards (ISO) – 1
 EN ISO 17225-1 General requirements (FDIS)
− Include all biomass raw materials and also aquatic biomass
− Flexible classification, each property selected separatetely
− Include classification of raw material, which is needed for product
standards
− Includes also special property classes for thermally treated
biomass pellets (e.g. torrefied pellets)
 EN ISO 17225-2 Graded pellets (FDIS)
− Table 1 for non-industrial use
− Table 2 for industrial use
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
International pellet standards (ISO) – 2
 Graded non-woody pellets – EN ISO 17225-6 (FDIS)
− Table 1 for agrobiomass blends and mixtures (classes A and B)
− Table2 for straw, miscanthus and reed canary grass pellets
 EN ISO 17225-1, 2 and 6 (FDIS stage)
− Values has been agreed
− standards have been sent for final approval in May (voting)
− Standards will be published in beginning of year 2014
− ISO 17225 will supersede EN 14961 standards and will be
published as EN ISO standards in Europe
 Graded thermally treated densified biomass (proposal stage)
− Proposal for work item (WI) has been discussed in March in
ISO/TC 238 meeting and there is support to also prepare this
standard
− Voting for new WI will done soon and if accepted standard will
be prepared within 2 years.
− SECTOR project is supporting planning and also AEBIOM
torrefaction group.
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification and classes (EN ISO 17225-1)
 Classification is based on origin and source,

major traded forms and properties
Hierarchical classification system in table format:
− 1 Woody biomass
− 2 Herbaceous biomass
− 3 Fruit biomass
− 4 Aquatic biomass
− 5 Biomass blends and mixtures
•
•
blends = intentional (composition known)
mixtures = unintentional
 Chemical treatment defined as any treatment with

chemicals other than air, heat or water
(e.g. glued, painted, coated, lacqued or otherwise treated wood
Chemically treated material shall not include halogenated organic
compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical
virgin material values or higher than typical values of the country
of origin.
© Eija Alakangas, VTT
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Solid biofuel utilisation chain
Tables with property grades
in EN ISO 17225-1 to 7
Origin/Source
Fuel
production
Biomass
Documentation
of origin
(Table 1 in
EN ISO 17225-1
Traded form
(e.g. pellet)
Solid
biofuel
Conversion
Bioenergy
use
Product declaration
Fuel Quality Assurance
EN 15234 series (in Europe)
EN 15234 series (in Europe)
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Wood pellets for households and
commercial applications*
(EN ISO 17225-2, Table 1)
* Facility that utilise solid biofuel burning appliances or equipment
that have similar fuel requirements as residential appliances.
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of industrial wood pellets (EN ISO 17225-2 (1)
Property
Standard
A1
A2
B
Origin and
source
EN ISO
17225-1
1.1.3 Stemwood
1.2.1 Chemically
untreated wood*
1.1.1 Whole trees
1.1.3 Stem wood
1.1.4 Logging
residues
1.2.1 Chemically
untreated wood*
1.1 Forest
plantation and
other virgin wood
1.2 By-products
and residues
1.3.1 Chemically
untreated used
wood
*Negligible levels of glue, grease and other timber production additives used
in sawmills during production of timber and timber product from virgin wood
are acceptable if all chemical parameters of the pellets are clearly within the
limits and concentrations are too small to be concerned with.
Diameter
and length
(D and L,
mm)
ISO 17829
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer, <45mm)
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer,
<45mm)
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer,
<45mm)
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of residential wood pellets (ISO 17225-2) (2)
Property
Standard
A1
A2
B
Moisture
(M, w-%)
ISO 18134
M10 < 10
M10 < 10
M10 < 10
Ash (A), % d
ISO 18122
A0.7 < 0,7
A1.2 < 1,2
A2.0 < 2,0
Bulk density (BD,
kg/m3)
ISO 17828
BD600 > 600
BD600 > 600
BD600 > 600
Fines (F, w-%)
EN 15210-1
F1.0 < 1.0
F1.0 < 1.0
F1.0 < 1.0
Durability (DU, w%
ISO 1783-1
DU97.5 > 97.5 DU97.5 > 97.5
DU96.5 > 96.5
Net calorific value, ISO 18125
Q
(as received,
MJ/kg, kWh/kg)
Q16.5 > 16,5
Q4.6 > 4.6
Q16.5 > 16,5
Q4.6 > 4.6
Q16.5 > 16,5
Q4.6 > 4.6
Cl (w-% dry)
ISO 16994
Cl0.02 < 0,02
Cl0.02 < 0,02
Cl0.03 < 0,03
N (w-% dry)
ISO 16948
N0.3 < 0,3
N0.5 < 0,5
N1.0 < 1,0
S (w-% dry)
ISO 16994
S0.04 < 0,04
S0.05 < 0,05
S0.05 < 0,05
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of residential wood pellets (ISO 17225-2) (3)
Property
Standard
A1
A2
I3
As (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
<1
<1
<1
Cd (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 0.5
< 0.5
< 0.5
Cr (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 10
< 10
< 10
Cu (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 10
< 10
< 10
Pb (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 10
< 10
< 10
Hg (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
Ni (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 10
< 10
< 10
Zn (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 100
< 100
< 100
Ash melting
behaviour*
CEN/TS
153701
Informative, should be stated
* all temperatures SST, DT, HT and FT in oxidating conditions at 550oC.
Pre-ashing temperature other than 550 oC should be stated.
ENplus certification has 815oC.
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Wood pellets for industrial use
(EN ISO 17225-2, Table 2)
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of industrial wood pellets (ISO 17225-2 (1)
Property
Standard
I1
I2
Origin and
source
ISO 17225-1
1.1.3 Stemwood
1.2.1 Chemically
untreated wood*
1.1 Forest
plantation and other
virgin wood
1.2.1 Chemically
untreated wood*
*Negligible levels of glue, grease and other timber production additives used
in sawmills during production of timber and timber product from virgin wood
are acceptable if all chemical parameters of the pellets are clearly within the
limits and concentrations are too small to be concerned with.
1.1 Forest
plantation and
other virgin wood
1.2 By-products
and residues
1.3.1 Chemically
untreated used
wood
Diameter
and length
(D and L,
mm)
ISO 17829
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer, <45mm)
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
D10, 10 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D12, 12 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer,
<45mm)
D06, 6 ± 1;
3,15 < L < 40
D08, 8 ± 1;
3,15 < L <40
(1 % longer,
<45mm)
I3
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of industrial wood pellets (ISO 17225-2) (2)
Property
Standard
I1
I2
I3
Moisture
(M, w-%)
ISO 18134
M10 < 10
M10 < 10
M10 < 10
Ash (A), % d
ISO 18122
A1.0 < 1,0
A1.5 < 1,5
A3.0 < 3,0
Bulk density
(BD, kg/m3)
ISO 17828
BD600 > 600
Max. 750
BD600 > 600
Max. 750
BD600 > 600
Max. 750
Fines (F, w-%)
EN 15210-1
F4.0 < 4.0
F5.0 < 5.0
F6.0 < 6.0
Durability (DU,
w-%
ISO 1783-1
97.5<DU <99.0
97.0 <DU<99.0
96.5 < DU <99.0
Net calorific
value, Q
(as received,
MJ/kg)
ISO 18125
Q16.5 > 16,5
Q16.5 > 16,5
Q16.5 > 16,5
Cl (w-% dry)
ISO 16994
Cl0.03 < 0,03
Cl0.05 < 0,05
Cl0.06 < 0,06
N (w-% dry)
ISO 16948
N0.3 < 0,3
N0.3 < 0,3
N0.6 < 0,6
S (w-% dry)
ISO 16994
S0.05 < 0,05
S0.05 < 0,05
S0.05 < 0,05
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Specification of industrial wood pellets (ISO 17225-2) (3)
Property
Standard
I1
I2
I3
As (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
<2
<2
<2
Cd (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
<1
<1
<1
Cr (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 15
< 15
< 15
Cu (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 20
< 20
< 20
Pb (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 20
< 20
< 20
Hg (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
Zn (mg/kg d)
ISO 16968
< 200
< 200
< 200
P (%)
ISO 17830
>99% (<3.15 mm)
>95% (<2.0 mm)
>60% (<0.1 mm)
>99% (<3.15 mm)
>90% (<2.0 mm)
>50% (<0.1 mm)
>97% (<3.15 mm)
>85% (<2.0 mm)
>40% (<0.1 mm)
Ash melting
behaviour*
CEN/TS
153701
Informative, should be stated
* all temperatures SST, DT, HT and FT in oxidating conditions (550oC).
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT
Additional information
 CEN and ISO Fuel specification standards:
Eija Alakangas, VTT, [email protected]
tel. +358 400 542 454
 Training material of wood pellets and non-woody
pellets SolidStandards project (www.solidstandards.eu)
 This presentation is supported by
PellCert project: www.PellCert.eu
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© Eija Alakangas, VTT

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