ETSI TC ITS WG5 STANDARDIZATION ACTIVITIES ETSI ITS Workshop 2011 Purpose and scope of WG5 WG5 exists to provide security standards within the ITS Standards platform • To protect the ITS platform (ITS-S?) • To protect the ITS infrastructure (RSU and beyond) • To protect the ITS user WG5 also exists to provide guidance on the use of security standards to protect the ITS applications 2 Is security necessary? Yes • Society depends on effective transport and society • • 3 needs assurance that it will be free from attack The scope for manipulation of transport networks is too extensive to hope it will be able to serve us without security control to prevent ITS serving only the criminal community The data gathered from use of ITS is personal data and needs to be protected using Privacy Enhancing Technologies Stakeholders in ITS Security Society • ITS provides benefit to all of society Industry • 100s of millions of vehicles, billions of phones, billions of internet connected devices, billions of people able Security standardisation aims to move and interact with transport networks toGovernment protect all the stakeholders • Need to manage ITS as a societal benefit and ensure it fits to the other government managed societal benefits • Need to ensure global cooperation for ITS 4 WG5 WORKING METHODS Risk analysis and countermeasure specification 5 Technical domain of ITS Security ComSec • Giving assurance to the user that data is transferred without being vulnerable to interception and misrouting AppSec • Giving assurance to the user that the ITS application works without harming the user SysSec • Giving assurance that the ITS system is not harming its environment (or spreading harm from the environment to its users) DataSec • Giving assurance that data in the ITS system is accurate, timely, and free from manipulation Regulatory compliance • Data protection, privacy protection, export control of algorithms, etc. 6 Working methods in ITS WG5 TR 102 893 7 TS 102 731 ES 202 867 Security analysis (TVRA) Understanding the user’s communication scenarios: • Correspondents know and trust one another and • • • • • • the network Correspondents know and trust one another but don’t trust the network Correspondents know but don’t trust one another but trust the network Correspondents don’t know one another (V2V) Communications network is public (V2I) Communications network is private Etc. Overview Current work • Standard for deploying signed CAM and DENM using IEEE 1609.2 • PKI design to support IEEE 1690.2 and privacy • Whilst maintaining regulatory compliance • Minimum standards to support EU Mandates for ITS Future work • Extension for full communications technology suite • Extension for full applications technology suite • Extension for non-vehicle centric ITS 9 THE REGULATORY AND SOCIETAL DIMENSION 10 Basic concepts in ETSI ITS #1 Access to transport infrastructure is highly regulated and policed • Driver and vehicle licensing • Different roads have different restrictions (vehicle and driver) • Infrastructure is operated both commercially and noncommercially Transport infrastructure supports many different transport uses • • • • 11 Movement of individuals Movement of livestock Movement of dangerous goods Summarised in many licensing schemes: • Private, Light goods, Heavy Goods, For hire, Multi-user. Basic concepts in ETSI ITS #2 ITS stations send environmental (event) and (vehicle) status data to other ITS stations ITS stations may exist in vehicles ITS stations may exist in roadside furniture ITS stations may be applets on internet connected devices • Android or Apple Apps for example ITS stations may be networked together Interpretation of received data may assist in driver safety • E.g. Collision avoidance Interpretation of received data may assist in regulatory compliance • E.g. Speed limit notification and adherence Different data has different authority • E.g. Speed limit notification from an authority versus speed assertion from an ITS station 12 Regulatory issues Deployment regulation • Specific to some of the involved ITS industries R&TTE directive • Placement of radio equipment on the market Privacy • Article 12 UDHR: • Article 8 EU Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: Right to respect for private and family life Data protection Crypto export Support to law enforcement • Data retention and lawful interception 13 Privacy, data protection and security Assigns rights to citizens on how data related to them is protected • Enshrined in law in Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data • Supplemented by Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications) 14 Privacy, data protection and security Personal data • shall mean any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person ('data subject'); an identifiable person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural or social identity Processing of personal data • shall mean any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organization, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, blocking, erasure or destruction “data subject’s” consent • shall mean any freely given specific and informed indication of his wishes by which the data subject signifies his agreement to personal data relating to him being processed 15 Privacy, data protection and security The means to give assurance of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services • Offers technical and procedural means to support regulation Security supports … • Privacy (Privacy Enhancing Technologies) • COM(2007) 228 final: “COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on Promoting Data Protection by Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs)” • Data protection 16 CURRENT WORK PROGRAMME Aims of WG5 in the year or so to come 17 Main work focus Keying strategies for ITS • Assuming correspondents don’t know one another • Assuming limited infrastructure access • Assuming minimising of cryptographic load (number of algorithms, number of mechanisms, number of keys) • Assuming need to reinforce regulation frameworks • For telecommunications and all other regulations • Minimal development of “novel” security solutions • Maximum re-use of existing best practices 18 Identity and role All vehicles have identities • • • • Make and model Colour and specification VIN Registration mark Many identifiers have an authority • VIN = Manufacturer • Registration mark = National vehicle licensing centre Some vehicles take on special roles • Emergency services Some vehicles and their roles imply behaviour • Farm Tractor – slow vehicle • Motorbike 19 PKI and Certificates certificate Alice [ ] 1. Verify certificate Certificate Authority (CA) • Trustworthy entity: OEM, government, etc. 2. Verify message Bob What is a certificate: • A signed (by the CA) public key (of Alice or Bob) • A certificate binds an identity (Alice) and/or a role (e.g. emergency vehicle) to a public key • Certificate(Alice) = [Alice, , SigCA(Alice, ) 20 PKI Design Approach TVRA Countermeasures Design input being gathered Stakeholder Limitations and Interests Security Services PKI Requirements PKI Design 21 Enrolment Authority: Example European Enrolment Authority CA OEM Production Line 1. Request 2. Enrolment Credential 22 Sub-CA Euro A National Enrolment Authority Euro B National Enrolment Authority CLOSING AND THANKS And some acknowledgments 23 Acknowledgements Members of ETSI TC ITS WG5 and ISO TC204 WG16.7 • Including the members of ETSI STF397 and STF408 FP7 project i-TOUR • The chair is supported in part by the i-TOUR project funded from European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the Grant Agreement number 234239. 24 BACK UP SLIDES (PKI OPTIONS) If really really needed and if time is available 25 Enrolment Authority: Example European Enrolment Authority CA Can this level be omitted? Sub-CA Euro A National Enrolment Authority OEM Production Line 1. Request 2. Enrolment Credential 26 Euro B National Enrolment Authority Sub-CA OEM 1 Enrolment Authority OEM 2 Enrolment Authority Safety Ticket Authority: Examples 1 European Safety Ticket Authority CA 2 European Safety Ticket Authority CA Sub-CA Euro A National Safety Ticket Authority 27 Euro B National Safety Ticket Authority Commercial and Information Ticket Authority: Example Could include another countrylevel CA European Commercial and Information Ticket Authority Sub-CA OEM 1 Ticket Authority Sub-CA Tier 1 Ticket Authority 28 Euro A Ticket Authority Root authority certifies provider authorities (need to satisfy minimum requirements). Then basically any structure is allowed • OEMs offering services • 3rd party service providers • Government agencies • etc.