pptx - BioASQ

Report
BioASQ
A challenge on large-scale biomedical
semantic indexing and question answering
www.bioasq.org
George Paliouras
National Center for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’
Intelligent Information Management
Targeted Competition Framework
ICT-2011.4.4(d)
GeorgePaliouras,
Paliouras,May
May2014
2014
George
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Biomedical articles per year
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Questions of biomedical experts
Yes/No question
“Are there any DNMT3 proteins present in plants?”
Exact Answer
“Yes”
Ideal Answer
“Yes. The plant DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (DRM2) is a homolog of
the mammalian de novo methyltransferase DNMT3. DRM2 contains a novel arrangement
of the motifs required for DNA methyltransferase catalytic activity.”
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Questions of biomedical experts
Factoid question
“What is the methyl donor of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases?”
Exact Answer
“S-adenosyl-L-methionine”
Ideal Answer
“S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet, SAM) is the methyl donor of DNA (cytosine-5)methyltransferases. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a methyl
group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the C-5 position of cytosine residues in DNA.”
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Questions of biomedical experts (III)
List question
“Which species may be used for the biotechnological production of
itaconic acid?”
Exact Answer
“Aspergillus terreus”, “Aspergillus niger”, “Ustilago maydis”
Ideal Answer
“In 1955, the production of itaconic acid was firstly described for Ustilago maydis. Some
Aspergillus species, like A. itaconicus and A. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this
organic acid and A. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media. Itaconic acid is
mainly supplied by biotechnological processes with the fungus Aspergillus terreus. Cloning
of the cadA gene into the citric acid producing fungus A. niger showed that it is possible to
produce itaconic acid also in a different host organism.”
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Questions of biomedical experts (III)
Summary question
“How do histone methyltransferases cause histone modification?”
Exact Answer
-
Ideal Answer
“Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are responsible for the site-specific addition of covalent
modifications on the histone tails, which serve as markers for the recruitment of chromatin
organization complexes. There are two major types of HMTs: histone-lysine NMethyltransferases and histone-arginine N-methyltransferases. The former methylate specific
lysine (K) residues such as 4, 9, 27, 36, and 79 on histone H3 and residue 20 on histone H4. The
latter methylate arginine (R) residues such as 2, 8, 17, and 26 on histone H3 and residue 3 on
histone H4. Depending on what residue is modified and the degree of methylation (mono-, diand tri-methylation), lysine methylation of histones is linked to either transcriptionally active
or silent chromatin.”
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Finding relevant snippets
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Not only texts: ontologies, linked data, …
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Information from structured data
List question
“Which forms of cancer is the Tpl2 gene associated with?”
Related RDF triple
Subject: http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/diseasome/resource/diseases/3003 (lung cancer)
Predicate: http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/diseasome/resource/diseasome/associatedGene
Object: http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/diseasome/resource/genes/TPL2"
Related concepts
http://www.disease-ontology.org/api/metadata/DOID:162 (cancer)
http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/M3K8_RAT (TPL2 synonym)
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BioASQ Vision
• Make sure this knowledge is used to the benefit of
patients
• Need to make it accessible to biomedical experts
• Search is not effective enough
• Push research in automated answering of
questions
• A challenge for such systems can achieve a
multiplying effect
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What is BioASQ?
A challenge funded by the European Union (FP7).
Task a: Hierarchical text classification
• Organizers distribute new unclassified PubMed articles.
• Participants assign MeSH terms to the articles.
• Evaluation based on annotations of PubMed curators.
Task b: IR, QA, summarization, …
• Organizers distribute English biomedical questions.
• Participants provide: relevant articles, snippets,
concepts, triples, “exact” answers, “ideal” answers.
• Evaluation: both automatic (GMAP, MRR, ROUGE etc.)
and manual (by biomedical experts).
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Task a
The challenge
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Task b
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Behind the scenes
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BioASQ Platform
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Datasets
Task a
1st challenge
2nd challenge
Training 10,876,004
12,628,968
Test
71950
83490
Task b
1st challenge
2nd challenge
Training
29
310
Test
281
500
Task b data contain gold articles, snippets, concepts,
triples, “exact” and “ideal” answers prepared by
biomedical experts from around Europe.
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Data sources
They include both text
and structured info.
►
PubMed abstracts,
PubMed Central articles,
MeSH.
► Gene Ontology, UniProt,
Jochem, Disease
Ontology.
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Annotation: questions and queries
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Annotation: snippets
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Annotation: answers
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Assessment: relevance of material
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Assessment: information in answers
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BioASQ social network
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Oracle
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Oracle
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Two cycles
2013 Schedule
March 2013
June 2013
August 2013
September 2013
2014 Schedule
February 2014
March 2014
May 2014
September 2014
The official challenge is over, but…
► Task a continues to run each week .
► An oracle for task b will be available soon.
► Oracles will remain available.
► Third cycle is being designed …
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Challenge participants so far
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Challenge participants in each cycle
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Evaluation measures
Task a: Hierarchical text classification
Flat measures for multi-label classification: Accuracy, MiF, MaF, EBF
Hierarchical measures: LCA-F (new), HF
Task b: IR, QA, summarization, …
Phase A:
standard IR measures, mean precision, mean recall, mean Fmeasure, MAP (used for winners selection), G-MAP
Phase B:
‘Exact answers’ (based on type): accuracy (yes/no), strict/lenient
accuracy, MRR (factoid), mean F-measure (list)
‘Ideal answers’: manual scores from the experts {Readability,
Repetition, Information Precision and Recall}, plus ROUGE
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First year technology/results overview
• Task 1a
–
–
–
–
Mainly SVMs and learning-to-rank.
Mostly flat classification, ignoring class taxonomy.
Mediocre results by hierarchical methods.
One of the systems outperformed NLM’s system.
• Task 1b
– Phase A (retrieve relevant documents, concepts, snippets, triples):
low performance (compared to baselines).
– Phase B (formulate ‘exact’ and ‘ideal’ answers): poor performance
for ‘exact’ answers (except for yes/no questions); high
performance for ‘ideal’ answers (paragraph-sized summaries), but
starting with gold documents, snippets etc.
• Large scope for improvements, esp. in Task 1b.
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“Exact” answer results (batch 2/3)
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“Ideal” answer results (batch 2/3)
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Results – task a – flat measures
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Results – task a – hierarchical
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First challenge prizes
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Sustainability
Making the challenge viable, at very low cost,
after the end of the project
•
•
•
•
•
BioASQ Oracle
Software release and installation instructions
Benchmark datasets
BioASQ social network
Involvement of the biomedical community in the
process
• Attracting sponsors for prizes
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Project Consortium
1. National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos” NSCR “D” (EL)
2. Transinsight GmbH – TI (D)
3. Universite Joseph Fourier- UJF (F)
4. University Leipzig - ULEI (D)
5. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 – UPMC (F)
6. Athens University of Economics and Business –
Research Centre – AUEB-RC (EL)
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Project Consortium
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Get in touch!
BioASQ workshop @CLEF (Sheffield, Sept 14)
Visit www.bioasq.org
Follow @BioASQ
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Useful Links
• BioASQ Annotation & assessment tools:
– http://at.bioasq.org/
– http://assess.bioasq.org/
– https://github.com/AKSW/BioASQ-AT
• BioASQ social network:
– http://sn.bioasq.org/
– https://github.com/AKSW/BioASQ-SN
• BioASQ platform:
– http://bioasq.lip6.fr/
• BioASQ Oracles:
– http://bioasq.lip6.fr/oracle/
A. Kosmopoulos, I. Partalas, E. Gaussier, G. Paliouras, I. Androutsopoulos, Evaluation
Measures for Hierarchical Classification: a unified view and novel approaches. Data
Mining and Knowledge Discovery (To appear)
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