European Explorers French & British Explorers 1400*s

What you will be able to do after
this chapter:
I can identify the key figures of French and
British exploration and settlement of North
I can describe the social and economic
factors of European imperialism
I can identify how European imperialism
impacted the social and economic
structures of Aboriginal societies
European Explorers
French & British Explorers 1400’s-1500’s
Chapter 2
Disruption of European Trade
What Were Europeans Seeking?
Disruption of trade routes with Asia drove
up the price of silk & spices
Europeans felt that in finding a new route
they could secure a supply of goods &
make lots of money
How Did Technology Help
European Exploration?
Europeans needed to find a
sea route to Asia since land
routes were too dangerous to
Sea travel also had many
risks, it was slow, hard to
steer, they could get lost, ship
wrecked or have bad weather
1400’s ships were designed to
be better & faster
Navigational instruments also
developed- compasses for
direction and an ‘astrolabe’ to
estimate location using sun &
the stars
Portuguese Found Route to Asia
around the Cape of Good Hope
Why Did Europeans Arrive in
Columbus (Italian) thought that
he could sail west to find Asia
Spain sponsored Columbus.
He landed in the Caribbean
which led to the exploration of
Central & South America
Spain's success in the west,
other countries raced to
explore the area north of the
Italians were the most
experienced sailors in Europe
Britain had Giovanni Caboto
sail for them in 1497
‘John Cabot’ claimed
Newfoundland for Britain
This led to fishing for cod off of
what is now Eastern Canada
Economic vs. Social Imperialism
Imperialism (pg. 45) – a policy (decision)
on the part of a ruler or government of one
territory to dominate other territories
– Economic Imperialism – When they are
taking over/dominating anything having to do
with business or money
– Social Imperialism - Think society… taking
over anything that would socially impact a
Contact With First Nations
Trade With the Mi’kmaq
After Caboto ( late 1400’s), the Mi’kmaq came
into regular contact with Europeans fishing off
the east coast
Trade between the two groups was
advantageous for both Europeans & First
Europeans thought that furs along with cod
could help them make money
Mi’kmaq traded for metal goods because they
were useful & durable
Tragedy of Beothuk
Beothuk, tribe of Newfoundland
Did not establish friendly relations with Europeans
Camps & settlements interfered with traditional fishing
areas & conflict over equipment
More British settlers arrived & pushed the Beothuk out
In the early 1800’s British tried to become friendly with
1823 Shawnadivit (Nancy) captured by British trappers
William Cormack recorded Nancy's life she died of
tuberculosis in 1829
The tribe was completely wiped out
Taken from
– Also called consumption… An infectious
disease that may affect almost any tissue of
the body, especially the lungs
Explorers in Canada
French Explorers
Jacques Cartier
1534, King of France
sponsored Jacques Cartier to
find a route through North
America to Asia
Cartier first encountered the
Mi’kmaq June 24, 1534
He also recorded encounters
with Stadacona near the
Gaspe Peninsula
During the winter Cartier’s
crew grew sick with scurvy
Stadacona’s gave them a cure,
a tea rich in vitamin C
Tried to take some people from
Stadecona back home, but
they had no immunity to
European diseases… they
Taken from
– A disease marked by swollen and bleeding
gums, livid spots on the skin… due to a diet
lacking vitamin C
Cartier’s First Voyage
Cartier’s Other Voyages
Turn to page 55 in your textbook!!!
Would this be considered economic or social imperialism?
Samuel de Champlain
1603 Champlain retraced
Cartier's routes & explored
the St. Lawrence River
1604 he returned to
establish the first French
colony in North America,
Port Royal in Acadia
1608, he established a
settlement: Quebec City
From Quebec City, he
traveled further into the
interior of North America
He was known as The
Father of New France
Made very accurate maps
useful to later explorers
Referred to the First Nations
as savages
Champlain’s Map
La Salle
French explorer went
down the Mississippi
river to The Gulf of
La Salle claimed a
huge area between
the Great Lakes &
Gulf of Mexico for
La Salle’s Map
European Explorers
Martin Frobisher
1576 left for the arctic
loaded with goods for
Returned with what
he thought was gold
It was ‘iron pyrite’
(Fools Gold)
He mined the arctic
but never found gold
Henry Hudson
1610 found a Northwest
passage between Europe
& Asia
1611 his ship got trapped
in the ice in Hudson's Bay
Crew got sick & were
His crew rebelled against
Hudson’s further
exploration plans
Hudson was abandoned
in a small boat & died
La Verendrye
Born in New France
Was a soldier & farmer, then an explorer
Traveled West of Great lakes to find a
route to Asia
He built forts along the way to establish
French control of the expanding fur trade
La Verendrye
Leader of Dene
Traveled with British
explorer Samuel
Hearne to find a
passage to Asia west
of the great lakes
Alexander Mackenzie
British explorer
First European to
reach Canada's West
coast by traveling
across land
Alexander Mackenzie’s Route West
Turn to page 66-7 in your textbook.

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