Air Law

CI Norwood
PO 401
References: FTGU Pages 91-119, AIM AGA
& RAC, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical,
Knowledge Chapter 12, CARs Part VI
Topics to be covered
 Aerodromes
 Traffic procedures
 Documentation
 Classifications of airspace
 Rules of the air
 VFR minima
 Transportation of dangerous goods
Why learn this stuff?
 Just like with every other aspect of life, rules must be
 If everyone knows and follows the rules, it makes for a
safer flying environment
Airport vs. Aerodrome
 Aerodrome: any surface designated for the departure,
landing, movement and servicing of aircraft
 Airport: an aerodrome in which a Canadian Aviation
document (certificate) is in force
 Controlled Airport: an airport at which an ATC unit is
provided and in service
Airport Definitions
 Maneuvering Area: the part of an aerodrome intended
to be used for the taking off and landing of aircraft and
for the movement of aircraft associated with takeoff
and landing, excluding aprons (runways and taxiways)
 Movement Area: the part of an aerodrome intended to
be used for the surface movement of aircraft, and
includes the maneuvering area and aprons
 Apron: the part of an aerodrome, other than the
maneuvering area, intended to accommodate the
loading and unloading of passengers and cargo; the
refueling, servicing, maintenance and parking of
aircraft; and any movement of aircraft, vehicles and
pedestrians necessary for such purposes
 Take off: for an aircraft other than a dirigible balloon,
the act of leaving the surface, including the take-off
roll and the operations immediately preceding and
following this act
 Landing: in the case of an aircraft other than a
dirigible balloon, the act of touching down on a
surface, including the operations which immediately
precede and follow this act.
 Air Traffic: All aircraft in flight and aircraft operating
on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome
 Airport Traffic: All traffic on the maneuvering area of
an airport and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an
 Air Traffic Control Unit: (ATC)
 An area control centre established to provide air traffic
control service to Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flights
and Controlled Visual Flight Rules (CVFR) flights;
 A terminal control unit established to provide air traffic
control service to IFR flights and controlled VFR flights
operating within a terminal control area; or
 An airport control tower unit established to provide air
traffic control service to airport traffic; as the
circumstances require.
 Air Traffic Control Service: (ATS)
 Services, other than flight information services,
provided for the purpose of:
 Preventing collisions between: aircraft; aircraft and
obstructions; and aircraft and vehicles on the
maneuvering area; and
 Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.
Important Abbreviations
 AAE: Above Aerodrome Elevation
 AGL: Above Ground Level
 ASL: Above Sea (mean) Level
 AIP: Aeronautical Information Publication
 AIM: Aeronautical information manual
 FSS: Flight Service Station
 ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization
 VMC: Visual meteorological conditions
 ATC: Air Traffic Controller
 ATS: Air Traffic Services
Runway Numbering
 Numbered according to
the direction it’s pointing
(called “bearing”)
 The number is rounded to
the nearest 10° and the last
number is dropped (ex. A
bearing of 186° would be
numbered runway 19)
 In Northern Domestic
Airspace (NDA), bearings
are true, in Southern
Domestic Airspace (SDA),
bearings are magnetic
Runway Markings
Normal Runway
Displaced Thresholds
Taxiway Markings
Taxiway centre line
Hold short lines
 Centre line is used for
lining up the aircraft on
the taxiway
 Aircraft must stop at the
hold short lines unless
otherwise cleared by
Runway hold short lights (amber)
Aerodrome Markings
 Any runway or taxiway
that is unserviceable will
be marked by large white
or yellow X’s
 Snow covered areas may
be marked with yellow
 Other unserviceable
areas may be marked
with red flags, marker
boards or cones
 Location Sign
 Direction Sign
No Entry Sign
Wind Indicators
 The runway to be used is usually determined by a wind
 3 main types of indicators: Wind sock or cone,
tetrahedron and the wind tee
Determining Wind Speed
 Wind speed on a wind sock is determined by how
many degrees the wind sock hangs below the horizon
 A dry Transport Canada standard “Wind Direction
Indicator” (wind sock) has the following properties:
Wind speed
Wind indicator angle
15 KT or above
10 KT
5° below horizontal
6 KT
30° below horizontal
How are runways numbered?
2. If you were flying over an airport and saw big white
X’s on the runway, what would that mean?
3. If you see a dry windsock hanging 5 degrees below
the horizon, how strong is the wind?
Aerodrome Lighting
 Runway edge lights –
Taxiways edge lights –
Threshold lighting –
green for approach side,
red for departure side
Displaced threshold –
red on edge, blue on
either side
Clearance bars – yellow
Traffic Circuit
 Upwind side – Area
opposite from the
downwind leg
Crosswind – Links the
upwind side to the
downwind leg
Downwind – Flight path
parallel and opposite to the
landing direction
Base – Links the downwind
and the final leg
Final – Flight path in the
direction of landing
 Aircraft has no radio
 Aircraft can only receive radio
 Must receive visual signals if
transmissions, cannot
 Must acknowledge
transmissions through a
visual signal (flashing of a
landing/taxi light, rocking
operating at a controlled
Light Signals
Red pyrotechnical flare: Do not land for time being
Flashing runway lights: Advises vehicles and pedestrians to vacate runways immediately
Aircraft Documents
The following documents must be on board the aircraft:
Certificate of Airworthiness
Certificate of Registration
Radio licence
Pilot Operating handbook (Aircraft Flight Manual)
Weight and balance
Journey log
Crew Licences
Intercept orders (if not familiar with orders)
Medical Validity
(-40 years)
(+40 year)
Student pilot
1, 3 or 4
60 months
60 months
Glider pilot
1, 3 or 4
60 months
60 months
Balloon pilot
1 or 3
60 months
24 months
Private pilot
1 or 3
60 months
24 months
Commercial pilot
12 months
6 months
If you were at an airport at night and were looking for
a taxiway, what colour lights would you be looking
2. What are the legs of the circuit?
3. If you were on final approach to land and you saw a
red light from the tower, what would you do?
Classifications of Airspace
 Canadian Domestic Airspace:
All airspace over the Canadian land mass, Canadian
Arctic, Canadian Archipelago and areas of the high
 Split into two areas:
Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA)
Southern Domestic Airspace (SDA)
Canadian Domestic Airspace
Northern Domestic
Southern Domestic Airspace
 The magnetic north pole is
 Most of the Canadian land
located within the NDA
 Magnetic compass heading
are erratic
 Runway headings and
cruising altitudes use TRUE
mass is located within this
 Magnetic compass heading
are fairly reliable
 Runway headings and
cruising altitudes use
Altimeter Setting
Altimeter Setting Region
Standard Pressure Region
 Airspace of defined
 All high level airspace over
dimensions below 18,000’
 Prior to take off, PIC sets
altimeter to current altimeter
setting, or field elevation
 During flight sets it to the
nearest station
 While approaching an
airport, sets it to the current
altimeter setting of that
Canada (18,000’+) and all low
level airspace not in the
altimeter setting region
 The altimeter is generally set
to 29.92 “Hg
 Prior to take off, the pilot sets
it to the current altimeter
setting or field elevation
 Set to current airport
altimeter setting before
descending for landing
Classifications of Airspace
 Canadian Domestic Airspace is divided into 7 classes –
A, B, C, D, E, F and G
 Flight within each region is governed by specified rules
and operating procedures
 Controlled airspace: A-F
 Uncontrolled airspace: G
Classifications of Airspace
Class A Airspace
Class B Airspace
 Base of all high level
 All low level airspace from
controlled airspace to FL600
 No VFR traffic is permitted
 ATC separation is provided to
all aircraft
 All aircraft must have a Mode
C (altimeter reporting)
12,500’ ASL to 18,000’ ASL
Any CZ/TCA can be made
into class B if necessary
Operations may be VFR or
ATC separation is provided to
all aircraft
Two-way radio
Radio navigation equipment
Mode C transponder
Classifications of Airspace
Class C Airspace
Class D Airspace
 IFR and VFR are permitted,
 IFR and VFR are permitted, but
but VFR requires a clearance
 Separation is provided for IFR
traffic, and VFR conflict
resolution if the workload
 Two way radio
 Mode C transponder
VFR traffic is required to make
two-way communication before
 Separation is provided for IFR
traffic, and VFR conflict
resolution if the workload
 Two way radio
 If in transponder airspace, a
Mode C transponder
Classifications of Airspace
Class E Airspace
Class F Airspace
 IFR and VFR is permitted
 Special use airspace
 Separation is provided to IFR
 Will be defined as “Advisory”
traffic only
 If within Transponder
Airspace, a Mode C
transponder is required
or “Restricted” depending on
 Is subject to the rules
whatever airspace it is located
in (uncontrolled/controlled)
More on Class F Airspace
Advisory Airspace
Restricted Airspace
 Areas where non-
 No person may conduct aerial
participating aircraft should
be aware of operations
 Pilots are allowed to enter at
their own discretion
 Activities include:
Hang gliding
Military operations
operations in restricted
airspace unless permission
has been given
More on Class F Airspace
Danger Area
 Over international water
where Canadian ATC has
 Activities may cause danger
to the aircraft
How do you know what’s Class F
 Class F airspace will be indicated on all applicable
With the boundaries, a code will be given (ex
CYA113(A) )
CY – Indicates Canada
A – Indicates advisory
113 – Number inside BC
(A) – Indicates aerobatics
Airspace Classification
Class G Airspace
 Any airspace that hasn’t been
classified as A, B, C, D, E or F
 ATC does not have any
authority or responsibility
 Consists of all uncontrolled
domestic airspace
 Airway: established between
specified radio-navigation
aides. Air traffic control
services are always provided
 Air Route: routes are
established between specified
radio-navigation aides. Air
traffic control service is not
FIC Flight Information Center
 One common toll-free
phone number
 1-866-WXBRIEF
What are the two types of domestic airspace in
Canada, and what are the differences?
2. What would you set your altimeter to in the
Altimeter setting region?
3. What does CYA123(M) mean?
Rules of the Air
 No person shall operate an aircraft unless in
accordance with VFR or IFR procedures or in
accordance with special regulations set forth by the
 No person shall create a hazard to persons or property
on the surface by dropping an object from an aircraft
in flight. (CAR 602.23)
 It is forbidden to carry dangerous goods except in
accordance with the Law on the Transport of
Dangerous Materials.
 No person shall operate an aircraft in such a reckless or
negligent manner as to endanger or be likely to
endanger the life or property of any person. (CAR
 No person shall operate an aircraft that is towing an
object unless the aircraft is equipped with a tow hook
and release control system that meet the applicable
standards of airworthiness. (CAR 602.22)
Right of Way
 An aircraft that has the right of way shall take action to
avoid collision if necessary
 An aircraft that has right of way will give way to
another aircraft that appears to be in an emergency
Right of Way
 When two aircraft are converging at the same altitude,
the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give
way, except:
- A power driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give
way to gliders, airships and balloons
- An airship shall give way to gliders and balloons
- A glider shall give way to balloons
- A power driven aircraft shall give way to other aircraft
towing gliders or any other load
Right of Way continued...
 When two aircraft are approaching head on, each shall
alter their headings to the right
An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and
the overtaking aircraft shall alter its heading to the right
Aircraft on the surface shall give way to landing aircraft
An aircraft approaching an airport to land shall give way to
lower aircraft
An aircraft shall not cut in front of an aircraft that is in the
final stages of an approach to land
No person shall take off if they will collide with anything
Aircraft Lighting
 For aircraft operating at
night, the following lighting
is required:
Red light on the left wing
visible through 110° and 2
Green light on the right wing
visible through 110° and 2
White light on the tail visible
through 140° and two miles
An anti-collision light visible
through 360° and 30° above
and below
Flight Plans and Itineraries
 A flight plan or itinerary outlines what type of aircraft
is being flown, what equipment is on board, who’s
flying it and what route it’s taking
 Allow authorities to determine with precision where
you are going, ete, passengers, in an emergency
 All aircraft will file a flight plan or itinerary unless...
 The flight is conducted within 25 NM of departure
Flight Plans vs. Itineraries
Flight Plan
Flight Itinerary
 Must be filed with an ATS
 Can be filed with a
 Must be closed with an ATS
unit upon arrival (arrival
 If not closed within 1 hour (or
time specified in flight plan)
search and rescue will be
“responsible person”
 Must be closed with that
responsible person within the
time specified on the flight
itinerary (default 24 hours)
 Cannot be used for
international flights
When two aircraft are converging at the same
altitude, which one must give way?
2. When two aircraft are approaching head on, what
should they do?
3. When do you not have to file a flight plan/itinerary?
Cruising altitudes
 To increase safety, pilots fly at specific altitudes
depending on their direction of travel
 For altitudes below 18,000’ ASL, altitudes are stated in
 Above 18,000’ ASL, they are called flight levels (i.e.
20,000’ would be called FL200)
VFR Cruising Altitudes
 For VFR flight below
18,000’ ASL and above
3,000’ AGL the following
rules apply
 All aircraft on easterly
tracks fly at odd thousands
+ 500’ ASL
 All aircraft westerly tracks
fly at even thousands +
500’ ASL
 In SDA, they are magnetic
tracks and in NDA, they
are true tracks
180-359° :
Even thousands
+ 500’
000-179° :
Odd thousands
+ 500’
ATC Clearances and Instructions
ATC Clearance
ATC Instruction
 Authorization from ATC for
 Directive issued from ATC
the aircraft to proceed under
the conditions of the
clearance (i.e. “Cleared to
 Clearance must be complied
when received and accepted
 Must read back clearances if
requested by ATC
for the purpose of air traffic
control (i.e. “Turn right
heading 330”)
 Must comply with and
acknowledge all ATC
Pilots may deviate from ATC clearances and instructions to conduct a
collision avoidance manoeuvre
VFR Minima
 To fly under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) certain weather
criteria have to be met
 These weather requirements should allow a pilot to
navigate with visual reference to the ground
VFR Weather Minima
Control Zones
3 SM
Horizontally: 1 500’
Vertically: 500’
Other Controlled Airspace
3 SM
Horizontally: 1
Vertically: 500’
Uncontrolled ≥ 1000’ AGL
1 SM (Day)
3 SM (Night)
Vertically: 500’
< 1000’ AGL –
Fixed wing
2 SM (Day)
3 SM (Night)
Clear of cloud
< 1000’ AGL –
1 SM (Day)
3 SM (Night
Clear of cloud
Special VFR
 VFR aircraft may flying into control zones that are below
VFR weather minima if the following conditions apply:
Aircraft other
than Helicopter
1 SM
Clear of cloud
½ SM
Clear of cloud
 Clearance from ATC has been given
 If operating at night, clearance will only be given for the
purpose of landing
An aircraft is flying VFR from Toronto to Ottawa at
6,500’ ASL, is he doing anything wrong?
2. You are flying and you hear ATC call you up and say
“SCV turn right heading 230” – Is this a clearance or
instruction? Can you refuse to do this?
3. What are the VFR weather minima for controlled
Instrument Requirements – Day
VFR Glider
 Altimeter
 Airspeed indicator
 Magnetic compass/
magnetic direction
 Two-way radio if
operating in Class C or D
airspace, an MF area or
the ADIZ
 Timepiece
Day and Night
Day or Daylight
 Time between the beginning
 Time between the end of
of morning civil twilight and
the end of evening civil
 Morning civil twilight begins
when the centre of the sun’s
disc is 6° below the horizon
evening civil twilight and the
beginning of morning civil
 Evening civil twilight ends
when the centre of the sun’s
disc is 6° below the horizon
Night VFR Instruments
 Airspeed indicator
 Precision barometric altimeter
 Magnetic compass
 Turn and bank indicator
 Gyroscopic compass or heading indicator
 Light source to illuminate instruments
 Reliable timepiece
 Flashlight
 Two-way radio
Oxygen Requirements
 To avoid the onsets of hypoxia the following apply with
respect to requiring oxygen:
 Entire period of flight exceeding 30 minutes at cabin
altitudes above 10,000’ but not above 13,000’
 Entire period of flight when above 13,000’
Transportation of Dangerous
 Anything that has been
identified in section 2 of
the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods Act,
1992 must be transported
in accordance with the
regulations in the act
 Essentially, proper
containers and labelling
must be used.
What are the required instruments for a glider in day
VFR flight?
2. What is the definition of night?
3. If you were planning to fly at 11,000 feet for 45
minutes, would you need to carry oxygen on board?
If so, how much?
 In this class we have covered:
 Aerodromes
 Traffic procedures
 Documentation
 Classifications of airspace
 Rules of the air
 VFR minima
 Transportation of dangerous goods
 The next class will be on theory of flight

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