Translation Shift, Grammatical Correspondence and Modulation as Basic Procedures Translation shift a concept that dealt with the work of Catford (1965). Larson (1984) called mismatch of structure. Newmark (1988) concept of transposition. Modulation is used for the change of meaning which occur in translation. There are three points in translation shift: 1. Formal Correspondence 2. Translation Shift 3. Modulation of Meaning Formal Correspondence Formal correspondence is any grammatical category in the TL which can be said to occupy the same position in the system of the target language (TL) as the given source language category in the SL system. Halliday (1985) recognizes five units which constitute ranks in English: 1. Sentence 2. Clause 3. Group or Phrase 4. Word 5. Morpheme I have gone to the market I have gone to the market and bought some apples. The big house House Beautiful In English, a predicate is always realized in a sentence as a verb or a verbal group, as in “My father is a teacher”. However, for this kind of sentence in Indonesian, the predicate would be realized as a noun, as in “Ayah saya guru”, where guru ‘teacher’ is the predicate. One-to-one Correspondence is found particularly for concrete noun such as, “book”, “tree”, “sky”, would correspondence to the words “buku”, “pohon”, “langit” in Indonesian. Translation Shift When we translate a word into phrase, we can see that the shift occurs because there is no correspondence for the word “adept” in Indonesian, is translated into phrase ‘sangat terampil’ (very skillful). Catford (1965) categorizes shifts into : level shift and category shift. Level shift means a shift from grammar to lexis (Catford, 1965:73). In case, a grammatical unit (e.g. noun, affixes, etc) in English has a lexical unit in Indonesian as its translation equivalent. 1. John has gone shopping John sudah pergi berbelanja 2. Nenekpun makan apel Even grandmother ate that apple When a word in English is translated into Indonesian and there is no correspondence of form between SL and TL is called category shift. Within the group of “category shift” there are: 1. Structure shift the blue scarf is expensive 2. Class-shift medical student 3. Unit-shift Pink 4. Intra-system shift a pair of trousers Modulation of Meaning Newmark (1978:89) stated that modulation of meaning is useful for analyzing perspective and nuances of meaning in translation, and it is used when the the TL rejects literal translation. 1. Negated contrary 2. Part for the whole 3. Active for passive 4. Free modulation Word Classes and Its Identifications The girl and the boy are good friends, but they have different hobbies. How can you be so indifferent to the suffering of the children? I wonder why he always comes late to work. The late president was honored for his struggle against apartheid. He was late to the concert last night. Lately, the performance of the company has improved. He always works hard. He is a hard worker. The man can hardly read without spectacles. Her face was white and clean. He will face the challenge with great care. The people argued about the increased tax. The increase in the number of students is expected to double next year. The quality of the products has gradually increased. She closes her eyes as he kisses her cheeks Jame’s office is close to the town hall. The airport occupies a lot of space. The satellite will be launched to orbit in outer space for ten years. He took a bucket from the well. She hasn’t been well lately.