IAEA

Report
Non-electric
applications with nuclear power
KHAMIS, Ibrahim
Head, Non-electric Applications Unit
Nuclear Power Technology Development Section
Department of Nuclear Energy
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
Contents
Introduction to cogeneration
Non-electric applications & Nuclear energy
Status of major non-electric applications
IAEA support for non-electric applications
Conclusion
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What is Cogeneration & Multi-generation?
Q
Nuclear
Reactor
W
Efficiency Matters!:   Q  W 1  W 2  ...... WN
Fuel
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3
Why cogeneration with nuclear?
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What is Non-electric applications?
It is the use of nuclear power partially or fully
for the production of heat (i.e. process steam)
required for such applications:
• Seawater desalination
• Hydrogen production
• District heating
• Process heat for Industry: Petrochemical, refineries, oil
sand/shale oil recovery, syn-gas production (coal-quality improvement), metal
production (steel, iron, Aluminium..etc), glass and cement manufacturing..etc.
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Current status of nuclear power?
Transport
Electricity
Sectors of global energy consumption
Heat
There is a big market for non-electric applications
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Non-electric Applications & Nuclear Energy
The wide “spectrum” of current reactors can cover all applications
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Facts on non-electric applications with nuclear power
 Less than 1% of heat generated in nuclear reactors
worldwide is at present used for non-electric applications.
 Potential: 340 units (1000 MWth) for district heating, 150
desalination, 240 for process heat, 600 for hydrogen
 Proven technology: with 79 operative reactors and 750 reactor-years
experience:
 1956: Calder Hall plant in UK provided electricity and heat to
nearby fuel processing plant
 1963: Agesta NPP in Sweden provided hot water for district
heating to a suburb of Stockholm
 1972: Aktau in Kazakhstan provided heat and electricity for
seawater desalination to supply 120 000 m3/day fresh water
for the city of Aktau
 1979: Bruce in Canada heat to heavy-water production and
IAEA industrial & agricultural users
Advantages of non-electric applications using
nuclear energy
• Improve NPP efficiency (Energy saving):
• Recycling of waste heat
• Rationalization of power production (use of off-peak)
• Improve the value of heat (use low-quality steam)
• Improve economics of NPPs (Better Revenue due to):
• Better utilization of fuel
• Sharing of infrastructures
• Production of more than one product (cogeneration)
• Sustain the environment (keep Clean & reduce):
• Consumption of fossil fuel to produce energy for
CO2
non-electric applications
• Impact due to all above (compared to two standalone plants)
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International Atomic Energy Agency
Drivers for cogeneration
 Improve economics
 Meet demand for energy-intensive non-electric
products (desalination, hydrogen,…etc).
 Secure energy supply for industrial complexes
 Accommodate seasonal variations of electricity
demand
 Match small and medium electrical grid with available
large-size reactors
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International Atomic Energy Agency
Harnessing waste heat: PBMR for desalination
Waste heat: Heat extracted from NPP with no penalty to the power production
Using reject heat from the pre-cooler and intercooler of PBMR = 220 MWth
at 70 °C + MED desalination technology
Desalinated water 15 000 – 30 000 m3/day
Cover the needs of 55 000 – 600 000 people
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Waste heat can also be recovered from PWR and CANDU type
reactors to preheat RO seawater desalination
Improvement of economics
10% of 1000 MWe PWR for desalination
To produce 130 000 m3/day of desalinated water using 1000 MWe PWR
Total revenue (Cogeneration 90% electricity +10% water):
Standalone
MED
RO
Electricity
7166 M$
6771 M$
7062 M$
Water
0
888 M$
672 M$
Total
7166 M$
7660 M$
7700 M$
+7%
+7.5%
Using MED:
• Easier maintenance & pretreatment
• Industrial quality water
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Using RO :
• Increased availability
• No lost power as in MED
• Using waste heat to preheat feedwater
by 15oC increases water production
by ~13%
Improvement of economics
with small desalination plants
~ 3% of total steam flow
Nuclear PP
1000 MWe
125 MW(th)
Steam extracted at 150
ºC after it has produced
55% of its electricity
potential.
MED - TVC
GOR=10
150 ºC
50,000 m3/d
3% x 45%= 1.35% more steam needed in order
to compensate the power lost
• Cheap nuclear desalination
Fuel cost ~ 15% of total electricity costs
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Source : Rognoni et al., IJND 2011
Better economics during off-peak power
Hydrogen production
Conventional Electrolysis (> 1000 kg/day)
$/kg
4.15
Dedicated nuclear HT Steam Electrolysis plant
$3.23
Off-peak grid electricity ($0.05/kW hr), HTSE
$2.50
Large-scale Steam Methane Reforming
$1.5 – 3.5
directly dependent on
the cost of natural gas,
no carbon tax
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16
Nuclear Desalination
• Reactors: 13
Aktau, Kazakhstan
• Countries with experience: 4
• Total reactor-years: 247
Demonstration Projects
Ohi, Japan
India
The 6,300 m3/d MSF-RO Hybrid Nuclear
Desalination Plant at Kalpakkam, India,
consists of 4,500 m3/d MSF plant and 1,800
m3/d SWRO plant,
Pakistan
MED thermal desalination demonstration
plant of capacity up to 4,800 m3/d at KANUPP
Korea
Constructing a one-fifth scale SMART-P with
a MED desalination unit in parallel with the
SMART nuclear desalination project
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Nuclear Desalination
Characteristics
• Sound technically and
economically
• Available experience
• Cogeneration issue
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Issues and Considerations
• Need of Potable Water
• Cogeneration: Nuclear heat and/or
electricity
• Co-location & Sharing of facilities
and services (NPP & ND)
• Innovations to make ND more
viable
Routes for Nuclear-Assisted H2 Production
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Hydrogen production using nuclear power
• Current nuclear reactors:
 Low-temperature electrolysis,
efficiency ~ 75%
 Off-peak power or intermittent
• Future nuclear reactors:
 High-temperature electrolysis,
efficiency ~ 95%
 Thermo chemical splitting,
efficiency ~ 95%:
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 Sulfur- Iodine cycle.
 Sulfur-Bromine hybrid Cycle cycle
 Copper Chlorine cycle
District heating
Technical features:
 Heat distribution network
• Steam or hot water 80-150°C
• Typical distribution 10-15 km
 District heat needs:
• Typically up to 600-1200
MWth for large cities
 Annual load factor < 50%
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Characteristics:
• Well proven:
Bulgaria, China, Czech
Republic, Hungary,
Romania, Russia,
Slovakia, Sweden,
Switzerland and
Ukraine
• Usually produced in a
cogeneration mode
• Limited in applications
District Heating
Finland
Russian Federations
Switzerland
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Industrial process heat applications
Examples:
• Enhanced brown coal quality
• Coal Liquefaction
• Coal Gasification
• Enhanced oil recovery
• Example of future nuclear
application - CANADA
• Replace burning of natural gas
for mining oil sands
Steam
Chambers
• Experience: Canada, Germany,
Norway, Switzerland, and India
Cap Rock (shale & glacial t ill) 250m thick
40m
2yr
5yr
6mo
6mo
8yr
10yr
• Main Requirements:
• Location close to user
• High reliability
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Unrecovered
Heavy Oil
~ 200m
~ 1 kilometer
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage
Enhanced oil recovery
Path ways for Enhanced oil
recovery:
 Exploitation of Heavy
oils Reserves
 Recovery of nature
and de-graded oil
fields
 Production of Clean
fuels and syngas from
heavy sour crude oil
and refinery tars /dirty
fuels)
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Challenges for non-electric applications
Disparity between characteristics of nuclear
reactors & heat markets :
 Reliability & availability: no unexpected outages & Max availability
 Large vs small NPPs (industrial park vs decentralized industries)
 Wide range of processes or industries
 Planning schedule for complete projects (long vs short)
Industry trends:
 Require small amount of heat 1-300 MWth, majority < 10 MWth,
 Buy energy but not risk build it
 Demonstrate newly NPPs tailored for industry (HTR)
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Challenges for non-electric applications
 Economics of NEA :
 Best option:
 Large reactors vs SMR
 Single purpose vs cogeneration (more than one product)
 Affordable (and at stable prices)
 Available on short & medium terms (15 years)
 Licenseability of tailored cogeneration NPPs with
ensured safety
 Siting:

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NIMBY: the “Not in my back yard” syndrome
 Transport of electricity or heat vs products
IAEA Project on Non-Electric Applications
1.1.6 Support for Nonelectrical Applications of
Nuclear Power
I. Khamis
+
Support to
Near-Term
Deployment
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Website: http://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/NEA/
IAEA tools in support of non-electric applications
DEEP
DE-TOP
Toolkit
• Identification of cost
options for desalted
water and/or power
• Identification of
coupling
configurations and
analysis of heat
extraction and power
production
• Contains hyperlinks
to sources on
nuclear
desalination.
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IAEA tools in support of non-electric applications
WAMP
HEEP
Toolkit
• Identification of
water needs in
NPPs, and
comparative
assessment of
various cooling
systems)
• Identification of cost
options for hydrogen
production,
distribution and
storage
• Contains hyperlinks
to sources on
nuclear hydrogen
production
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Conclusions
Nuclear energy can:
• Penetrate energy sectors now served by fossil fuels as:
•
•
•
•
seawater desalination
district heating
Hydrogen production
heat for industrial processes
• Provide near-term, greenhouse gas free, energy for
transportation
 Nuclear cogeneration is feasible and economically viable:
Provide near-term, greenhouse gas free, energy for transportation
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…Thank you for your attention
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency

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