1 - St. Eustatius

St. Eustatius drinking water
by means of Reverse Osmosis System
What is osmosis?
Under normal pressure, solution
passes from one side to the other until
it is equal
Osmosis: The movement of water across a semi permeable
Osmosis is the movement of water (red dots) through a
semipermeable membrane to a higher concentration of
solutes (blue dots).
Water equalizes
• a process by which molecules of a solvent
tend to pass through a semipermeable
membrane from a less concentrated solution
into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing
the concentrations on each side of the
What Is Reverse Osmosis and How
Does It Work?
• Seabirds use reverse osmosis to desalinate seawater. They
possess a membrane in their throats which allows water
molecules to get through and stops the salt. This enables
them to drink fresh, unsalted water, and they spit out the
salty waste.
• Humans worked out how to copy this process around 40 years
ago for the same reason - to desalinate seawater.
• When applied pressure exceeds the osmosis pressure,
Reverse Osmosis will take place.
• In the Reverse Osmosis situation, water passes through the
membrane to the diluted solution leaving behind dissolved
particles.(in this case salt)
When applied pressure exceeds the osmosis pressure,
Reverse Osmosis will take place.
In the Reverse Osmosis situation, water passes through the
membrane to the diluted solution leaving behind dissolved
particles.(in this case salt)
What RO Membrane remove?
• Reverse Osmosis membrane reduces 93%-98% of dissolved
minerals, salt and other contaminates from your water
supply. This is where the purification takes place
How the membrane works:
Reverse osmosis is a type of
water purification technology.
It is not a filtration system, but rather a
membrane technology usually used to
remove salt from seawater, a process
called desalination.
Truth About Reverse Osmosis water
Is it Safe to Drink the Water?
Yes, Reverse Osmosis water is very clean and
good for our bodies.
Some people claimed to say that RO water is too pure and clean
to be good because such perfectly clean mineral-free water does
not exist naturally on earth. They forgot about a great thing
called RAIN.
• Rainwater is water that has been stripped of all minerals and
is one of the purest and cleanest water on earth. Human
beings have relied on drinking rainwater for thousands of
years without any negative health effects. Only recently has
rainwater been polluted by the industrial age and man’s
pollution of the skies. Ask yourself this. What can be more
natural than mother-nature’s life giving rain?
• With all the scientific research that has been done over the
years on reverse osmosis water, none has ever documented
any negative health effects from water treated by this
Some more facts to consider.
• 1. Bottled Water = RO Water.
When you drink many brands of bottled water, you are
actually drinking RO treated tap water.
• 2. Soft Drinks = RO Water.
• When you drink soft-drinks and soda, you are
drinking mineral-free treated RO water. Vitamin
water, sports drinks & energy drinks are also made
from RO purified water
Reverse osmosis is now used in
medicine and industry as a means of
purifying or separating water and other
solvents from other components. In
recent years, it has been used
increasingly for making pure water for
dialysis in hospitals and for producing
Water for Injection.
The truth is many of us have been using and
drinking reverse osmosis water in significant
part of our lives without even knowing it.
St. Eustatius water production process
• The source for our
drinking water
production comes
from the sea, via a
• By the use of wells,
instead of direct sea
water gives your
membrane with a
longer life. Reduces
the ppm
Well schematic view
The well is located next to the water plant
building and it is approximately 80 feet deep
and is protected by a concrete casing
The sea water supply well
Water is pumped from the well into
the water plant and into media filters
Media filters
Media Filters removes dirt, silt, rust, and
other suspended particles from a water
stream with a filtration level of
approximately 5 to 15 microns
Media filter: how it works
Cartridge filters is another filtration method used
to clean sediments and harmful solids out of the
water before entering the membranes.
From the Cartridge Filter the water flows to
the first pass Membrane under pressure
between 600 to 800 psi
The water (brackish) will then flow to
the second pass membranes
The Brackish water will pass thru the second sets of
membranes performing the same process, purifying the
brackish water into fresh water.
• The permeate water will then be stored in a buffer
tank. Untreated water.
The permeate water would then be transfer to a holding tank
while being treated with chlorine and calcium by flowing thru
a calcite media filter.
Holding tank @ Gallows Bay
Treated water will then be transfer to the tank in Lodi
where it is distributed to the costumers.

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