Identify the goals of each of the following leaders: a) b) c) d) e) f) Hitler (Germany) Mussolini (Italy) Tojo (Japan) Roosevelt (U.S.) Churchill (Great Britain) Stalin (Russia) Axis Powers a) Hitler (Germany) a) Dominate Europe and eliminate “inferior” peoples. b) Mussolini (Italy) a) Dreamed of an Italian Empire stretching from the eastern Adriatic to East Africa c) Tojo (Japan) – a) Sought Japanese control of the Western Pacific and Asia Allied Powers a) The allied powers ( U.S., Great Britain, and Russia) shared unified goals. Germany was their greatest threat, and Hitler had to be defeated first. Their ultimate goal was to fight and win a two-front war. They had a Europe first strategy, and would focus on the war in the Pacific after the war in Europe was over. Explain why the Allies employed a “Europe First” strategy. 2. They wanted to focus on Europe until Hitler was defeated, because he was considered the most dangerous enemy. The Pacific war was not seen as a long-term threat. Explain the significance of the Battle of Stalingrad. 3. The battle of Stalingrad was the true turning point of the war in Europe. It ended any realistic plans Hitler had of dominating Europe. Explain why allied forces were fighting in north Africa. 4. Allied forces were fighting in North Africa in order to drive out the German’s and pave the way for an invasion of Italy. Identify General Dwight D. Eisenhower 6. An American general, known as Ike, who commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa. Identify General George S. Patton 7. A tank commander in the American military, who General Eisenhower put in command of the American forces in North Africa. What two important decisions were made when president Roosevelt and prime minister Churchill met in January 1943 8. First, the Allies decided to increase bombing of Germany and invade Italy. Second, FDR announced that the Allies would accept only unconditional surrender, or giving up completely without any concessions. Explain the difference between saturation bombing and strategic bombing. 9. Saturation bombing is when troops fly in large numbers dropping massive amounts of bombs, in order to inflict maximum damage. Strategic bombing is when troops target specific and key targets to destroy the enemies ability to make war. What important role did the Tuskegee airmen play during the bombing campaign on Germany during 10. The Tuskegee Airmen escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fighter pilots. (In more that 1,500 missions over enemy territory in Europe, the Tuskegee Airmen did not lose a single bomber) Identify Admiral Chester Nimitz. 11. Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific who knew of Japanese plans through Navy code breakers. Explain the significance of the battle of midway in June 1942. 12. The Battle of Midway was the turning point of the war in the Pacific, ending the seemingly unstoppable Japanese advance. Japan is now Fill in the following chart by identifying the effects of WWII on the American Home front: Economy Effects on Women Effects on Minorities 13. Economy Effects on Women Effects on Minorities War bonds Wage controls Increased government involvement New taxes Rationing New ideas about women in the workplace New relationships Gained skills and organizational experience New opportunities Executive Order 8802 Fair hiring practices in jobs funded with government money Japanese Americans were moved to internment camps Mexican American farm workers came to the United States via the bracero program. Give a brief explanation for each of the following terms: A.Operation Overlord A. General Dwight D. Eisenhower B. Normandy C. D-Day D. Omaha – B. Battle of the Bulge – C. V-E Day – d) War in the Pacific a) b) c) d) Island hopping – Kamikaze pilotsIwo Jima- Okinawa – Bombing of Tokyo (March 1945) – e) Manhattan Project – a) b) c) d) e) f) g) J. Robert Oppenheimer – Los Alamos, NMJuly 16, 1945 President Harry S. Truman – Hiroshima bombed – Nagasaki bombed – V-J Day - 14. Operation Overlord – The massive Allied invasion of France General Dwight D. Eisenhower- American general and the Supreme Commander of Allied Forces Normandy- A 50-mile stretch of five separate beaches where the Allies planned to invade France. D-Day- June 6, 1944 When the Allies hit Germany in force at Normandy in the north of France. Many Americans died as soon as they stepped off the boats onto the beaches. Omaha- the one beach that was heavily defended by German troops in Normandy, where many American troops were killed. 14. Battle of the Bulge- A desperate attempt to drive a wedge between American and British forces. (Instead it crippled Germany) V-E Day- Victory in Europe Day, May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered in a French schoolhouse. War in the Pacific 14. Island hopping- WWII strategy that involved seizing selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while bypassing others. Kamikaze pilots- Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed planes into American ships during WWII. Iwo Jima – an island east of Japan in which United States Marines fought the Japanese in a 36 day long battle. 23,000 marines became causalities. Okinawa- an island off of Japan with a vital air base was the most complex and costly operation in the Pacific campaign. 50,000 American men were killed. Bombing of Tokyo (March 1945) – A single night in which B-29 bombers destroyed 16 square miles of Tokyo, killing over 83,000 Japanese. 14. Manhattan Project – code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb. J. Robert Oppenheimer- a physicist and one of the primary leaders of the Manhattan Project. Ran the scientific aspect of the project Los Alamos, NM- The construction sight of the atomic bomb July 16, 1945- The date on which the first atomic bomb was tested outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. President Harry S. Truman- President of the United States and the end of WWII, who made the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. Hiroshima bombed – August 6, 1945, 9:14 a.m. the first atomic bomb was dropped on Japan killing 60,000 of Hiroshima’s residents in two minutes Nagasaki bombed – August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan killing 35,000 residents V-J Day – Victory in Japan Day, August 15, 1945, (Japan fully surrendered on September 2 ending the most costly war in history) Explain the meaning of Hitler’s “Final Solution” 22. Hilter’s Final Solution was the systematic extermination of all Jews living in the areas controlled by the Third Reich. Explain the conditions in Nazi Concentration camps. 23. The concentration camps where those Nazi Germany deemed undesirable, was a place where the prisoners were tortured, and killed, starvation and disease were rampant, and in some the prisoner's were subjects of medical experimentation. Explain the reality of Nazi death camps 24. The Nazi Death camps were camps where prisoners were systematically exterminated. Prior to WWII, the United States and other countries blocked Jewish immigration. Give some possible reasons why these countries denied Jews entry. 25. Some reasons given are : anti- Semitism, apathy, preoccupation with the Great Depression, and a tendency to underestimate Hitler’s genocidal plans. What was created in 1948 in response to the Holocaust? 26. In 1948, the Jewish community in Palestine proclaimed the State of Israel, which was immediately recognized by President Truman Identify the “big three” at the Yalta conference following WWII 27. The “Big Three” at the Yalta Conference were President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin Describe the changes that occurred after WWII in the following areas: World Map changesDecline of ImperialismShift in Balance of Power- 28. Poland shifted slightly to the west, and Germany was split into two countries. The war marked the end of Western European domination of the world, many of the colonies of the European countries renewed their drive for independence. As the power shifted, the United States and Soviet Union stepped into the power vacuum, emerging from the war strong and confident. Describe how the united nations was organized (make sure you identify general assembly and security council) 29. The United Nations was organized on the basis of cooperation between the Great Powers, not on the absolute equality of all nations. The UN was made up of delegates from 50 nations, who all sat on the General Assembly. The five major WWII Allies – The United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China- were assigned permanent seats on the most powerful arm of the UN, the Security Council. Describe the Nuremberg trials 30. The Nuremberg Trials were the trials in which the Nazis were prosecuted for their war crimes, the prosecutors focused especially on the Holocaust. Identify and describe America’s new identity following WWII 31. American’s were viewed as the antithesis of the Nazi ideal. Nazis were totalitarian, racist, and warlike. The Americans defined themselves as democratic, tolerant, and peaceful. They argued that the Allies fought the “people’s war” for tolerance, freedom, democracy, and peace. Explain how the role of the government expanded following WWII 32. From the collection of raw materials to attempts to control inflation, the government had made the important decisions to guide the economy.