Identify the goals of each of the following leaders:
Hitler (Germany)
Mussolini (Italy)
Tojo (Japan)
Roosevelt (U.S.)
Churchill (Great Britain)
Stalin (Russia)
Axis Powers
a) Hitler (Germany) a) Dominate Europe and eliminate
“inferior” peoples.
b) Mussolini (Italy) a) Dreamed of an Italian Empire stretching
from the eastern Adriatic to East Africa
c) Tojo (Japan) –
a) Sought Japanese control of the Western
Pacific and Asia
Allied Powers
a) The allied powers ( U.S., Great Britain, and
Russia) shared unified goals. Germany was
their greatest threat, and Hitler had to be
defeated first. Their ultimate goal was to fight
and win a two-front war. They had a Europe
first strategy, and would focus on the war in
the Pacific after the war in Europe was over.
Explain why the
Allies employed a
“Europe First”
 They wanted to focus on Europe until Hitler was
defeated, because he was considered the most
dangerous enemy. The Pacific war was not seen as a
long-term threat.
Explain the
significance of the
Battle of Stalingrad.
The battle of Stalingrad was the true turning
point of the war in Europe. It ended any
realistic plans Hitler had of dominating
Explain why allied
forces were fighting in
north Africa.
Allied forces were fighting in North Africa in
order to drive out the German’s and pave the
way for an invasion of Italy.
Identify General
Dwight D.
An American general, known as Ike,
who commanded the Allied invasion of
North Africa.
Identify General
George S. Patton
 A tank commander in the American military, who
General Eisenhower put in command of the
American forces in North Africa.
What two important
decisions were made
when president
Roosevelt and prime
minister Churchill met
in January 1943
First, the Allies decided to increase bombing
of Germany and invade Italy.
Second, FDR announced that the Allies
would accept only unconditional surrender,
or giving up completely without any
Explain the difference
between saturation
bombing and strategic
Saturation bombing is when troops fly in
large numbers dropping massive amounts of
bombs, in order to inflict maximum damage.
Strategic bombing is when troops target
specific and key targets to destroy the
enemies ability to make war.
What important role
did the Tuskegee
airmen play during
the bombing
campaign on
Germany during
The Tuskegee Airmen escorted bombers and
protected them from enemy fighter pilots. (In
more that 1,500 missions over enemy
territory in Europe, the Tuskegee Airmen did
not lose a single bomber)
Identify Admiral
Chester Nimitz.
Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the
United States Navy in the Pacific who knew
of Japanese plans through Navy code
Explain the
significance of the
battle of midway in
June 1942.
The Battle of Midway was the turning point
of the war in the Pacific, ending the
seemingly unstoppable Japanese advance.
Japan is now
Fill in the following chart by identifying the effects of WWII on the
American Home front:
Effects on Women
Effects on Minorities
Effects on Women
Effects on Minorities
 War bonds
 Wage controls
 Increased
 New taxes
 Rationing
 New ideas about
women in the
 New relationships
 Gained skills and
 New opportunities
 Executive Order
 Fair hiring practices
in jobs funded with
government money
 Japanese Americans
were moved to
internment camps
 Mexican American
farm workers came
to the United States
via the bracero
Give a brief explanation for each of the following terms:
A.Operation Overlord A. General Dwight D. Eisenhower B. Normandy C. D-Day D. Omaha –
B. Battle of the Bulge –
C. V-E Day –
d) War in the Pacific
Island hopping –
Kamikaze pilotsIwo Jima- Okinawa –
Bombing of Tokyo (March 1945) –
e) Manhattan Project –
J. Robert Oppenheimer –
Los Alamos, NMJuly 16, 1945 President Harry S. Truman –
Hiroshima bombed –
Nagasaki bombed –
V-J Day -
 Operation Overlord – The massive Allied invasion of
 General Dwight D. Eisenhower- American general
and the Supreme Commander of Allied Forces
 Normandy- A 50-mile stretch of five separate beaches
where the Allies planned to invade France.
 D-Day- June 6, 1944 When the Allies hit Germany in
force at Normandy in the north of France. Many
Americans died as soon as they stepped off the boats
onto the beaches.
 Omaha- the one beach that was heavily defended by
German troops in Normandy, where many American
troops were killed.
 Battle of the Bulge- A desperate attempt to drive a
wedge between American and British forces.
(Instead it crippled Germany)
 V-E Day- Victory in Europe Day, May 7, 1945,
Germany surrendered in a French schoolhouse.
 War in the Pacific
 Island hopping- WWII strategy that involved seizing
selected Japanese-held islands in the Pacific while
bypassing others.
 Kamikaze pilots- Japanese pilots who deliberately
crashed planes into American ships during WWII.
 Iwo Jima – an island east of Japan in which United
States Marines fought the Japanese in a 36 day long
battle. 23,000 marines became causalities.
 Okinawa- an island off of Japan with a vital air base
was the most complex and costly operation in the
Pacific campaign. 50,000 American men were killed.
 Bombing of Tokyo (March 1945) – A single night in
which B-29 bombers destroyed 16 square miles of
Tokyo, killing over 83,000 Japanese.
 Manhattan Project – code name of the project that developed the
atomic bomb.
 J. Robert Oppenheimer- a physicist and one of the primary leaders of
the Manhattan Project. Ran the scientific aspect of the project
 Los Alamos, NM- The construction sight of the atomic bomb
 July 16, 1945- The date on which the first atomic bomb was tested
outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico.
 President Harry S. Truman- President of the United States and the
end of WWII, who made the decision to use the atomic bomb against
 Hiroshima bombed – August 6, 1945, 9:14 a.m. the first atomic bomb
was dropped on Japan killing 60,000 of Hiroshima’s residents in two
 Nagasaki bombed – August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb was
dropped on Nagasaki, Japan killing 35,000 residents
 V-J Day – Victory in Japan Day, August 15, 1945, (Japan fully
surrendered on September 2 ending the most costly war in history)
Explain the meaning of
Hitler’s “Final Solution”
Hilter’s Final Solution was the systematic
extermination of all Jews living in the areas
controlled by the Third Reich.
Explain the conditions
in Nazi Concentration
The concentration camps where those Nazi
Germany deemed undesirable, was a place
where the prisoners were tortured, and
killed, starvation and disease were rampant,
and in some the prisoner's were subjects of
medical experimentation.
Explain the reality of
Nazi death camps
The Nazi Death camps were camps where
prisoners were systematically exterminated.
Prior to WWII, the United States and
other countries blocked Jewish
immigration. Give some possible
reasons why these countries denied
Jews entry.
Some reasons given are : anti- Semitism,
apathy, preoccupation with the Great
Depression, and a tendency to underestimate
Hitler’s genocidal plans.
What was created in
1948 in response to
the Holocaust?
In 1948, the Jewish community in Palestine
proclaimed the State of Israel, which was
immediately recognized by President
Identify the “big
three” at the Yalta
conference following
The “Big Three” at the Yalta Conference were
President Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and
Joseph Stalin
Describe the changes that occurred after WWII
in the following areas:
World Map changesDecline of ImperialismShift in Balance of Power-
 Poland shifted slightly to the west, and Germany
was split into two countries.
 The war marked the end of Western European
domination of the world, many of the colonies of the
European countries renewed their drive for
 As the power shifted, the United States and Soviet
Union stepped into the power vacuum, emerging
from the war strong and confident.
Describe how the united nations
was organized (make sure you
identify general assembly and
security council)
 The United Nations was organized on the basis of
cooperation between the Great Powers, not on the
absolute equality of all nations. The UN was made
up of delegates from 50 nations, who all sat on the
General Assembly. The five major WWII Allies – The
United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and
China- were assigned permanent seats on the most
powerful arm of the UN, the Security Council.
Describe the
Nuremberg trials
The Nuremberg Trials were the trials in
which the Nazis were prosecuted for their
war crimes, the prosecutors focused
especially on the Holocaust.
Identify and describe
America’s new
identity following
American’s were viewed as the antithesis of
the Nazi ideal. Nazis were totalitarian, racist,
and warlike. The Americans defined
themselves as democratic, tolerant, and
peaceful. They argued that the Allies fought
the “people’s war” for tolerance, freedom,
democracy, and peace.
Explain how the role
of the government
expanded following
From the collection of raw materials to
attempts to control inflation, the government
had made the important decisions to guide
the economy.

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