Chapter 7

Report
Chapter 7
International Strategy:
Creating Value in Global
Markets
Topics
 Why international expansion?
 Determinants of national competitive
advantage.
 Motivations and risks of global expansion.
 Two opposing forces—cost reduction and
adaptation to local markets.
 International Strategies.
 Entry strategies
Drivers of Globalization
► increased
similarity of lifestyles
► global communications
► fast communication
► pressures to reduce costs
Motivations for International Expansion
Increase Market Size
Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient
scale manufacturing facilities
Motivations for International Expansion
Increase Market Size
Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient
scale manufacturing facilities
Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers
Motivations for International Expansion
Increase Market Size
Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient
scale manufacturing facilities
Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers
Return on Investment
Large investment projects may require global markets to
justify the capital outlays
Motivations for International Expansion
Increase Market Size
Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient
scale manufacturing facilities
Japanese electronics or automobile manufacturers
Return on Investment
Large investment projects may require global markets to
justify the capital outlays
Aircraft manufacturers Boeing or Airbus
Motivations for International Expansion
Economies of Scale or Learning
Expanding size or scope of markets helps to achieve
economies of scale in manufacturing as well as
marketing, R & D or distribution
- Can spread costs over a larger sales base
- Increase profit per unit
Motives for Int’l Expansion
► Optimize
the physical location for every
activity in its value chain
 Performance enhancement
 Cost reduction
 Risk reduction
Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage
Home country of origin is crucial to
International success
Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage
Home country of origin is crucial to International success
Factor Conditions
Basic Factors
- Land, labor
Advanced Factors
- Highly educated workers
- Digital communications
Generalized Factors
- Capital, infrastructure
Specialized Factors
- Skilled personnel
Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage
Home country of origin is crucial to International success
Factor Conditions
Basic Factors
- Land, labor
Advanced Factors
- Highly educated workers
- Digital communications
Generalized Factors
- Capital, infrastructure
Specialized Factors
- Skilled personnel
Demand
Conditions
Home country
may support
scale efficient
operations by
itself
Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage
Home country of origin is crucial to International success
Related & Supporting
Industries
- Japanese cameras & copiers
Factor Conditions - Italian shoes & leather
Basic Factors
- Land, labor
Advanced Factors
- Highly educated workers
- Digital communications
Generalized Factors
- Capital, infrastructure
Specialized Factors
- Skilled personnel
Demand
Conditions
Home country may
support scale efficient
operations by itself
Porter’s Determinants of National Advantage
Home country of origin is crucial to International success
Related & Supporting
Industries
Factor Conditions
- Japanese cameras & copiers
- Italian shoes & leather
Basic Factors
- Land, labor
Advanced Factors
- Highly educated workers
- Digital communications
Generalized Factors
- Capital, infrastructure
Specialized Factors
Firm
- Skilled personnel
Demand
Conditions
Home country may
support scale efficient
operations by itself
Strategy, Structure
& Rivalry
Intense rivalry fosters
industry competition
Potential Risks of International
Expansion
► Political





and economic risk
Social unrest
Military turmoil
Demonstrations
Violent conflict and terrorism
Laws and their enforcement
Risk Rankings
Rank Country
1
2
3
40
55
63
86
114
161
178
Total Risk
Economic Political
Assessment Performance Risk
Luxembourg
Switzerland
United States
China
Poland
Vietnam
Russia
Albania
Mozambique
Afghanistan
99.51
98.84
98.37
71.27
57.12
52.04
42.62
34.23
21.71
3.92
25.00
23.84
23.96
18.93
18.56
14.80
11.47
8.48
3.28
0.00
24.51
25.00
24.41
16.87
13.97
11.91
8.33
5.04
2.75
3.04
Total of Credit
Total
and Access
Debt
to Finance
Indicators Indicators
20.00
20.00
20.00
19.73
9.36
18.51
17.99
19.62
13.85
0.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
15.74
15.23
6.82
4.83
1.09
1.83
0.88
Potential Risks of International
Expansion
► Currency
risks
 Currency exchange fluctuations
 Appreciation of the U.S. dollar
► Management
 Culture
 Customs
 Language
risks
• Income levels
• Customer preferences
• Distribution system
Strategy Implementation
Power distance (PD)
Hofstede’s
Dimensions of
National
Culture
Uncertainty avoidance (UA)
Individualism-collectivism (I-C)
Masculinity-femininity (M-F)
Long-term orientation (LT)
Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing
Costs and Adapting to Local Markets
► Strategies
brands
that favor global products and
 Should standardize all of a firm’s products for all
of their worldwide markets
 Should reduce a firm’s overall costs by
spreading investments over a larger market
Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing
Costs and Adapting to Local Markets
► Strategies
brands
that favor global products and
• Are based on three assumptions
Customer needs and interests worldwide are
becoming more homogeneous
 People (worldwide) prefer lower prices at high
quality
 Economies of scale in production and marketing
can be achieved through supplying global
markets

Opposing Pressures and Four Strategies
Pressures to Reduce Cost
Pressures for Adaptation
Two Opposing Pressures: Reducing
Costs and Adapting to Local Markets
► But
those three assumptions may not always
be true
 Product markets vary widely between nations
(customer needs and interests?)
 In many product and service markets there appears
to be a growing interest in multiple product
features, quality and service (preference for low
price?)
 Technology permits flexible production, cost of
production may not be critical to product cost, and
firm’s strategy should not be product-driven
International Strategy
► Pressure
International
Strategy
for both local adaptation and low
costs are rather low
► Different activities in the value chain have
different optimal locations
► Susceptible to higher levels of currency and
political risks
Global Strategy
Global
Strategy
► Competitive
strategy is centralized
controlled largely by corporate office
► Emphasizes economies of scale
► Advantages




Larger production plants
Efficient logistics and distribution networks
Supports high levels of investment in R&D
Standard level of quality throughout the world
and
Global Strategy
Global
Strategy
► Competitive
strategy is centralized and
controlled largely by corporate office
► Emphasizes economies of scale
► Disadvantages
• Concentration on scale-sensitive resources and
activities in one or few locations leads to higher
transportation and tariff costs
• Activity is isolated from targeted markets
• The rest of the firm becomes dependent on that
geographically isolated location
Multidomestic Strategy
Multidomestic
Strategy
► Emphasis
is differentiating
products and services to adapt to local
markets
► Authority is more decentralized
► Risks include
 Increased cost structure
 Potential problems with local adaptations
 Finding optimal degree of local adaptation is
difficult
Transnational Strategy
Transnational
Strategy
► Optimization
of tradeoffs associated with
efficiency, local adaptation, and learning
► Firm’s assets and capabilities are dispersed
according to the most beneficial location for a
specific activity
► Avoids the tendency to either
 Concentrate activities in a central location
 Disperse them across many locations to enhance
adaptation
Transnational Strategy
Transnational
Strategy
► Unique
risks and challenges
 Choice of an “optimal” location cannot
guarantee that the quality and cost of factor
inputs will be optimal
 Knowledge transfer can be a key source of
competitive advantage, but it does not take
place automatically
Strengths and Limitations of Various
Strategies
Strategy
Strengths
Limitations
International
• Leverage and diffuse
parent’s knowledge and
core competencies.
• Lower costs because of
less need to tailor
products and services.
• Greater level of worldwide
coordination
• Strong integration across
various businesses.
• Standardization leads to
higher economies of scale
which lowers costs.
• Helps to create uniform
standards of quality
throughout the world.
• Limited ability to adapt to
local markets.
• Inability to take advantage of
new ideas and innovations
occurring in local markets.
Global
Exhibit 7.6 Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies
• Limited ability to adapt to
local markets.
• Concentration of activities
may increase dependence
on a single facility.
• Single locations may lead to
higher tariffs and
transportation costs.
Strengths and Limitations of Various
Strategies
Strategy
Strengths
Multidomestic • Ability to adapt products
and services to local
market conditions.
• Ability to detect potential
opportunities for attractive
niches in a given market,
enhancing revenue.
Limitations
• Less ability to realize cost
savings through scale
economies.
• Greater difficulty in
transferring knowledge
across countries.
• May lead to “overadaptation”
as conditions change.
Transnational • Ability to attain economies • Unique challenges in
of scale.
determining optimal locations
of activities to ensure cost
• Ability to adapt to local
and quality.
markets.
• Unique managerial
• Ability to locate activities
challenges in fostering
in optimal locations.
knowledge transfer.
• Ability to increase
knowledge flows and
learning.
Exhibit 7.6 Strengths and Limitations of Various Strategies
Entry Modes of International Expansion
Wholly Owned
Subsidiary
Extent of Investment Risk
High
Joint Venture
Strategic Alliance
Franchising
Licensing
Exporting
Low
Low
High
Degree of Ownership and Control
Adapted from Exhibit 7.7 Entry Modes for International Expansion
Exporting
► Relatively
inexpensive way to enter foreign market
► Minimal risk
► Successful distributors
 Carry product lines that complement the multinational’s
products
 Behave as if they are business partners with the
multinationals.
 Invest in training, information systems, and advertising
and promotion
Licensing and Franchising
► Franchisor
receives a royalty or fee
► Franchisee gets to use trademark, patent, trade
secret or other valuable intellectual property
► Disadvantages
 Loss of control over its product
 Licensee may become a competitor
 Threat to brand name and reputation of products
► Advantages
 Limited risk exposure
 Expanded revenue base
Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures
► Partnerships
that enable firms to share risks and
potential revenues and profits
► Partners
 gain exposure to new knowledge and technologies
 Develop core competencies that can lead to competitive
advantages
 Gain information on local markets conditions
Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures
• Partnerships that enable firms to share risks
and potential revenues and profits
• Risks
• Needs to be clearly defined strategy supported by
both partners
• Needs to be clear understanding of capabilities and
resources that will be central to the partnership
• Must be trust between partners
Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
► Business
company




owned by only one multinational
Acquire an existing company in the home country
Develop a totally new operation (greenfield venture)
Most expensive and risky of all global entry strategies
Greatest control over all activities

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