Presentatie E.Feskens 1 Juli 2014

Report
Voeding, gezondheid & stad: implicaties
voor stadslandbouw
Bijeenkomst Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw, 1 juli, Ede
Edith Feskens, [email protected]
Wageningen University & Research centre
‘To explore the potential of nature to improve the
quality of life’
1876
Higher agricultural
education at national level
1918
‘Landbouwhogeschool’
1997
WU merged with
Research Institutes
Campus Wageningen UR
Division of Human Nutrition (as of 1968)
190 people involved in research and education
 40 scientific staff members involved in teaching
 20 postdocs, researchers
 45 technical assistants, dieticians, administrative staff
 85 PhD fellows (~30% international, external)
764 students Nutrition & Health
 448 BSc, 316 MSc (26% international), 2150 Alumni
 Courses, individual scientific work, internship in public/private organisation
 In 2015: Distance learning MSc Nutritional & Public Health Epidemiology
Wat is Stadslandbouw?
 Het produceren van voedsel en groen, in, om en voor de
stad
Wat is Voeding?
 Voedsel = Food
 Voeding = Nutrition
 Nutriënten (voedingsstoffen), voedingsmiddelen
(Richtlijnen)
 Voedselkeuze, voedingsgedrag
 Voedingspatroon
Wat is Gezondheid?
 WHO (1948):
Gezondheid is een toestand van volledig lichamelijk,
geestelijk en maatschappelijk welzijn en niet slechts de
afwezigheid van ziekte of andere lichamelijk gebreken.
 Nieuw voorgesteld (M. Huber):
Het dynamische vermogen van mensen om zich aan te
passen en zelf regie te voeren over hun welbevinden.
(Positieve Gezondheid)
Quetelet Index = Body Mass Index
 Gewicht (kg) / lengte2 (m)
<18.5
ondergewicht
18.5-25
normaal gewicht
25-30
overgewicht
30-35
obesitas
>35
morbide obesitas
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults
BRFSS, 1990, 2000, 2010
(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person)
2000
1990
2010
No Data
<10%
10%–14%
15%–19%
20%–24%
25%–29%
≥30%
Medical complications of obesity
Copyright ©2006 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Trends in overgewicht en obesitas in NL
Trend in kinderobesitas in NL
Overgewicht en Obesitas naar opleiding
Overweight ‘hotspots’ in NL
Overgewicht & Obesitas in NL
Ethnische verschillen?
Determinants of obesity
Conceptual framework of the social
determinants of inequalities in obesity
Copyright ©2007 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Activity
of daily
living
Pressures toward
positive energy balance
Workrelated
physical
activity
sedentary
behavior
Body
Fat
Mass
EIn
High fat,
energy
dense
foods
EOut
Large
portion
sizes
Palatable,
low-cost,
easily
available
foods
Bron: Hill et al., 2000
Determinants of physical activity
 Physical and social environment
 Personal attributes
 Aspects of the physical activity itself, such as exercise
intensity and enjoyment of activity
Zoek de verschillen!
RGV
Voedselconsum
ptiepeilin 2003,
2007
Summary of evidence WHO/FAO 2002
Strength of
evidence
Factors protecting
against obesity
Factors promoting obesity
Convincing
Regular physical
Sedentary lifestyles; high intake of foods high in
activity; high intake of energy and poor in micronutrients
dietary fibre
Probable
Home and school
environments that
support healthy food
choices for children;
breast feeding
Heavy marketing of energy dense foods and fastfood
outlets; high intake of sugars (sweetened soft drinks
and fruit juices); adverse socioeconomic conditions
(in developed countries, especially for women)
Possible*
Foods with low
glycaemic index
Large portion sizes; high proportion of food prepared
outside home (developed countries); eating patterns
showing "rigid restraint and periodic disinhibition"
Insufficient
Increased frequency
of eating
Alcohol
Voedingsgedrag
 Niet ontbijten
 Snacken
 Energie-dichte voeding
 Grote porties
 Gesuikerde drank (frisdrank)
 Hoge eetsnelheid
Richtlijnen Goede Voeding leveren
gezondheidswinst op!
 Hart- en vaatziekten
 Obesitas en Diabetes
 Diverse soorten Kanker
 Osteoporose
 Deficienties,
 Bloedarmoede etc
Bijna niemand eet gezond!
Gezonde Voeding: een bijdrage van
stadslandbouw?
 Link met de Gezonde Wijk..
 (Arnhem: in Achterstandswijk.. lopend project: Samen
Langer Gezond.. Dit toevoegen?)
 Andere Voorbeelden?
 Verkleinen van de fysieke en psychologische afstand
tussen consument en producent....
 Breder scale verse groenten, lagere prijs?
 Fysieke activeeti in moes- schooltuin
 Sociale cohesie
Impact of garden-based youth nutrition intervention
programs: a review.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009
 Findings from this review suggest that garden-
based nutrition intervention programs may have the
potential to promote increased fruit and vegetable intake
among youth and increased willingness to taste fruits
and vegetables among younger children;
 however, empirical evidence in this area is relatively
scant.
 There is a need for well-designed, evidenced-based,
peer-reviewed studies to determine program
effectiveness and impact. .
Review of the nutritional implications of farmers'
markets and community gardens: a call for
evaluation and research efforts. J Am Diet Assoc.
2010
.
 7 studies on the impact of farmers‘
market nutrition programs for Special
Supplemental Nutrition Program; 5 on programs for
seniors, and 4 on focused on community gardens.
 Findings from this review reveal that few well-designed
research studies (eg, those incorporating control groups)
utilizing valid and reliable dietary assessment methods
to evaluate the influence of farmers' markets and
community gardens on nutrition-related outcomes have
been completed.
Regionaal bevolkingsonderzoekonderzoek :
EetMeetWeet en NQplus

EMW:
een ‘sampling-frame’ van 6000 mensen uit
Wageningen eo (Ede, Renkum, Arnhem, Veenendaal)

NQplus (Nutrition Questionnaires plus..)
gedetailleerd longitudinaal onderzoek onder 1750 EMW
deelnemers (mannen en vrouwen van 20-70 jaar)

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