From Compliance to Inclusion: Reframing Disability in

Report
FROM COMPLIANCE TO
INCLUSION: REFRAMING
DISABILITY IN STUDENT AFFAIRS
ADAM CRAWFORD, MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY
JOE HARTSOE, UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL
ARKANSAS
INTRODUCTIONS
Adam Crawford, Missouri State University
•
•
Graduate Assistant, Disability Resource Center
Graduate Student, Student Affairs in Higher
Education
Joe Hartsoe, University of Central Arkansas
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Accommodations Coordinator, Disability
Support Services
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Graduate School, College Student Personnel &
Administration
OVERVIEW
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Reasons to Care
Study: Accessibility of Student Affairs
Conceptual Frameworks
Developing Strategies
Closing
REASONS TO CARE
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6-9% of college students have disabilities
o largest/fast growing group: learning disabilities
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Students with disabilities are less likely to:
o
o
o
o
o
pursue/attend college
stay enrolled
obtain degree
successfully transition from two-year to four-year schools
secure employment
(Burgstahler & Moore, 2009)
REASONS TO CARE (CONT.)
“For individuals with disabilities, the positive correlation
between level of education and rate of employment is
stronger than for the general population” (Burgstahler &
Moore, 2009, p. 155).
“It is estimated that only one in four (26%) postsecondary
students with disabilities self-disclose their disabilities to
the campus disability services office” (Burgstahler & Moore,
2009, p. 156).
STUDY INTRODUCTION
Making Student Services Welcoming and Accessible Through
Accommodations and Universal Design
Burgstahler & Moore, 2009
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Examined barriers to Student Affairs at multiple institutions
nationwide and potential solutions to those barriers
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53 Students with Disabilities
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o 13 Focus Groups
72 Student Affairs Administrators
o 14 Focus Groups
STUDY FINDINGS
Types of Problems Identified
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Three Primary Categories
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o Knowledge
 Lack of Awareness, Inadequate Information
o Attitude
 Close-Mindedness, Negative Perspectives
o Skills
 Lack of Ability to Offer Accommodations
All Important when working with students with disabilities!
STUDY FINDINGS (CONT.)
Students with Disabilities
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71% of students identified problems in accessing the student
affairs offices on their campus
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Biggest problem identified: Lack of Knowledge
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Perceptions of Student Affairs professionals toward students
with disabilities: Impatient, Disrespectful, Suspicious
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Students reported feeling like a burden to Student Affairs staff.
Student Affairs staff often did not understand their responsibility
to accommodate.
STUDY FINDINGS (CONT.)
Student Affairs Professionals
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93% of Student Affairs professionals identified problems in
the accessibility of Student Affairs on their campus.
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Biggest Problem Identified: Lack of Knowledge
Little collaboration with Disability Support Offices
Findings suggest Student Affairs is:
o Reactive, not proactive
o Lacking knowledge in legal requirements
o Inexperienced in providing appropriate accommodations
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
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To create the foundation for reframing disability in
student affairs, it is important to:
o explore our perceptions of disability
o realign from compliance model to an inclusive model
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Three Conceptual Frameworks:
o Medical Model vs. Interactional Model of Disability
o Disability as Diversity
o Universal Design
CONCEPTIONS OF DISABILITY
When we think about disability and disabled
individuals, what messages are out there in
our popular culture?
CONCEPTIONS OF DISABILITY
(CONT.)
Let’s apply this to higher education:
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What do these messages say about what it means
to have a disability in higher education?
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Who is at the focus of these messages?
TRADITIONAL PERCEPTIONS OF
DISABILITY
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Traditional perceptions of disability place emphasis on
the disabled person as:
o an object of pity
o a “super crip”
o a charity case
o a burden
o a “fate worse than death”
Notice that the focus is on the individual with the
disability.
MEDICAL MODEL OF DISABILITY
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A common model where the individual with a disability is
perceived of as:
o sick, broken, or otherwise deficient
o in need of professional help
The focus, again, is on the individual.
While perhaps helpful in a doctor’s office, the medical
model is not conducive to addressing the systemic
issues of accessibility in the world, and on our
campuses.
RE-THINKING DISABILITY VIDEO
See what traditional perceptions of disability you can identify in
this video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9s3NZaLhcc4
A NEW MODEL OF DISABILITY
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The Interactional (a.k.a. Sociopolitical) Model of Disability
focuses not on the individual, but on the environment and its
interaction with the individual.
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Instead of perceiving a wheelchair user’s abilities as deficient
for being unable to use a staircase (à la Medical Model), the
Interactional Model would ask:
“Why are staircases built in a world with
people who use wheelchairs?”
MEDICAL MODEL VS.
INTERACTIONAL MODEL
Medical Model (Old)
Interactional Model (new)
Disability is a deficiency or
abnormality
Disability is a difference
Being disabled is negative
Being disabled, in itself, is neutral
Disability resides in the
individual
Disability derives from the interaction
between the individual and society
Carol J. Gill, Chicago Institute of Disability Research
MEDICAL MODEL VS. INTERACTIONAL
MODEL (CONT.)
Medical Model (Old)
Interactional Model (new)
The remedy for disabilityrelated problems is cure or
normalization of the
individual
The remedy for disability-related problems is
a change in the interaction between the
individual and society
The agent of remedy is the
professional
The agent of remedy is the individual, an
advocate, or anyone who affects the
arrangements between the individual and
society
DISABILITY AS DIVERSITY
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Many Student Affairs units today are focusing their efforts on
recruiting/promoting diversity on their campuses
o However, disability is often not thought of as a part of diversity
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Using the interactional model, disability is a difference. As
such, Student Affairs should consider:
o disability as an identity (Gibson’s Model)
o including disability as a valued part of diversity
o the culture surrounding students with disabilities
UNIVERSAL DESIGN (UD)
“Universal Design (UD) is the design of products and
environments to be usable by all people, to the
greatest extent possible, without the need for
adaptation or specialized design.” – Ron Mace
“UD is designing for people with a broad range of
abilities, disabilities, ages, reading levels, learning
styles, native languages, cultures, and other
EXAMPLES OF UD
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Information/materials provided in multiple formats
o Standard, Electronic, Large Print, Braille
Height-accessible service desks
Accessible websites
Captioned videos
Door handles that do not require a grip
Diverse individuals featured in publications
Statement of accommodation process in publications
EXAMPLES OF UD (CONT.)
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Choose color and fonts carefully
o High-contrast colors
o Large enough print to be read comfortably
o Sans serif font (Arial, Helvetica)
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Offer multiple ways to participate in programs/services
If it’s visual, make it auditory - and vice versa
Include Disability Support Office staff /disabled students on
planning boards, advisory councils, etc.
MSU RECREATION CENTER
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Disabled Students/DRC included in design process
UD Features:
o Sloped walkway entrance
o High contrast signage
o Zero-depth sloped entry to pool
o Height-variant counters, lockers
o Adaptable workout machines
MSU RECREATION CENTER
DEVELOPING STRATEGIES
Small Group Activity
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As a small group, discuss some of the ways Student Affairs
presents barriers for students with disabilities.
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Then, develop ideas about how to approach these barriers:
o What might you be able to do (proactively if at all possible)?
 Creating accessible programming
 Offering services that can be used by all students
o Is there an outside resource that can help?
o Are there policies or processes that need to be altered?
PRESENTING
STRATEGIES
QUESTIONS?
REFERENCES & RESOURCES
Burgstahler, S., & Moore, E. (2009). Making student services
welcoming and accessible through accommodations and universal design.
Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 21(3), 155-174.
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Etiquette Materials: http://www.missouristate.edu/disability/141653.htm
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Accessibility in Student Services (DO-IT):
http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/equal_access_ss.html
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Gibson’s Model of Disability Identity Development:
http://www.disabilitypsychology.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Disabilityand-Clinical-Competency-Article.pdf
MSU Rec Center: http://www.missouristate.edu/reccenter/
UD Resources (DO-IT):
http://www.washington.edu/doit/Resources/udesign.html
THANK YOU!
Joe Hartsoe: [email protected]
Adam Crawford:
[email protected]

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