Timeline Eastern Orthodoxy CUT

Report
Alex Edquist and Michelle Story
Period 6
Chronology

 589 CE- The filioque clause in a certain ritual prayer of the Romans
begins to drive the Roman Church from the Byzantine Church, as it
implied that Jesus was equal to God, while the Byzantines thought that
God was superior to Jesus.
 754 CE- The Pope is forced to turn to the Frankish for aid, as he was
unable to communicate with the patriarch (head of the church) in
Byzantium.
 787 CE- The Seventh Ecumenical Council allows the use of icons in the
church and begins to more deeply divide the Western (Roman) and
Eastern (Greek/Constantinople) churches.
 800 CE- The Pope crowns Charles the Great as Holy Roman Emperor,
which is not confirmed by Byzantium. This further divides the eastern
and western branches of the Christian Church.
Chronology

 988 CE- Vladimir, the Prince of Kiev, is baptized and brings Christianity
to Russia.
 1054 CE- The Great Schism occurs when Pope Leo IX demands that
Cerularius of Constantinople acknowledge Rome’s superior position and
Cerularius refuses, resulting in both leaders excommunicating each other
from their churches. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
churches are officially separated.
 1204 CE- Catholic crusaders conquer and destroy Constantinople.
 1326 CE- Moscow becomes an important city when the head of the
Russian Orthodox church moves the religious capital there.
 1438 CE- Orthodox leaders from Constantinople meet in the Council of
Florence to attempt to resolve theological differences between the two
churches, especially concerning the question of the filioque. The
churches are temporarily reunified.
Chronology

 1484 CE- The patriarch of Constantinople repudiates the Council of
Florence, making the split between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
churches final.
 1453 CE- The Ottomans capture Constantinople, and Moscow begins to
see itself as the logical replacement as the head of the Orthodox
church—or as the third Rome (Constantinople was a ‘second Rome’).
 1490 CE- The Judaizing Heresy, which challenged the divinity of Jesus
and the Holy Spirit, is brutally put down in Russia under Ivan the Great.
 1556 CE- St. Basil’s Cathedral is built in Moscow.
 1700 CE- Peter the Great makes the previously independent Eastern
Orthodox church a ‘government department’ headed by a college of
senior clergy called the Holy Synod.
Important People in Orthodox History

Peter the Great
Pope Leo IX
(above) and
Michael
Cerularius
(below)
Charles the Great
Vladimir of Kiev
Regional Impact: Eastern Europe
Politics

Intellectual
Religion
Louis the Pious destroys the
collection of German epics
started by his father
Charlemagne.
The biblical text the Orthodox
used was the Greek
Septuagint and the New
Testament.
Pavia becomes the center of
science and literature.
The Greek Septuagint
includes the seven
Deuterocanonical Books and
a small number of other
books that are in neither
Western canon.
The people believe that their
task on this earth is to
preserve and teach the
Apostolic and patristic
traditions and related church
practices.
The Bulgarian Church
separates from Rome and
Constantinople.
The church believed that
asceticism was very important,
which evolved into a
widespread monastic tradition.
The Byzantine Empire
extends to the Tigris and
Euphrates which leads to a
massive spread of the
The goal of Orthodox
Christians from baptism, is to
continually draw near to God
throughout life. (also known
as theosis).
Orthodox Christians believe
scripture was revealed by the
Holy Spirit to its inspired
Regional Impact : Eastern Europe
Art and
Architecture
The earliest church
was established by St.
Paul and the Apostles.
Fresco “Ascension of
Christ” was built at the
lower Church of St.
Clement, Rome.
Campanile of St
Mark’s in Venice was
built.
St. Basil’s Cathedral in
Moscow
Technology
The
“Astronomical
System” of
Ptolemy was
created.

Economy
The people had a
tax collecting
system so more
churches could be
created in order to
carry out the
religion of
Orthodox.
Society
Orthodox bishops
were the most
important people in
the regions and they
were more respected
than the average
person.
The languages spoken
were Latin, French,
and Yiddish.
The elders in the
Orthodox communities
were highly respected.
Regional Impact: Eurasia
Politics
The Five Dynasties of
China controlled China
and the Orthodox
religion made an impact
on the Chinese.
The church believed that
asceticism was very
important, which
evolved into a
widespread monastic
tradition.

Intellectual
Religion
The biblical text the
Orthodox used was the
Greek Septuagint and the
New Testament.
The people believe that their
task on this earth is to preserve
and teach the Apostolic and
patristic traditions and related
church practices.
The Greek Septuagint
includes the seven
Deuterocanonical Books
and a small number of
other books that are in
neither Western canon.
The goal of Orthodox
Christians from baptism, is to
continually draw near to God
throughout life. (also known as
theosis).
Put greater importance on
history and education.
Orthodox Christians believe
scripture was revealed by the
Holy Spirit to its inspired
human authors.
Regional Impact : Eurasia
Art and
Architecture
Technology
Building of wooden Philosophy of
Ko Fuang Temple in science.
Shansi, China.
The Chin has a
picture showing of
contemporary
costumes and
musical instruments
based on their
beliefs from being
Orthodox.

Economy
Society
The people had a tax
collecting system so
more churches could
be created in order to
carry out the religion
of Orthodox.
The languages
spoken were
Latin, French, and
Yiddish.
The relocation of the
Eastern Orthodox
center to Moscow
helped make the
prosperous city that
Moscow is today.
The elders in the
Orthodox
communities were
highly respected.
Regional Impact: Middle East
Politics

Intellectual
Religion
Cordoba becomes the
seat of Arab learning,
science, commerce, and
industry.
The biblical text the
Orthodox used was the
Greek Septuagint and
the New Testament.
The people believe that their
task on this earth is to preserve
and teach the Apostolic and
patristic traditions and related
church practices.
The church believed that
asceticism was very
important, which
evolved into a
widespread monastic
tradition.
The Greek Septuagint
includes the seven
Deuterocanonical Books
and a small number of
other books that are in
neither Western canon.
The goal of Orthodox
Christians from baptism, is to
continually draw near to God
throughout life. (also known as
theosis).
Orthodox Christians believe
scripture was revealed by the
Holy Spirit to its inspired
human authors.
Regional Impact : Middle East
Art and
Architecture
Homes have a
specific area set
aside for family
prayer, usually an
eastern facing
wall, on which are
hung many icons.
Technology
Greek Philosophy
Mathematics
Astronomy
Medicine
Optics
Chemistry
Botany
Physics

Economy
Society
The people had a
tax collecting
system so more
churches could be
created in order to
carry out the
religion of
Orthodox.
The languages
spoken were
Latin, French, and
Yiddish.
The elders in the
Orthodox
communities were
highly respected.
Eastern Orthodox Art

St. Basil’s Cathedral
Moscow
“Ascension of Christ”
fresco
Byzantium
Metropolitan Cathedral
Romania
Change Over Time

 Before 550 CE, Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism began as the
same religion. Constantinople had replaced Rome as the capital of the
Roman (now Byzantium) empire, but Rome was still the religious capital
of Christianity.
 After 550 CE, differences in theology and arguments about whether
Constantinople and Rome shared religious power, or whether Rome and
the Pope were superior began to divide the Christianity of the two cities,
but they were still considered the same religion. The great distance
between these two cities helped lead to the beginning of separation.
 Between 600 CE and 1100 CE, the emerging Eastern Orthodox view of
Christianity began to spread from Constantinople to Greece, Russia, and
other areas of Eastern Europe.
Change Over Time

 In 1054, the Great Schism occurred, and, thereafter, the Eastern Orthodox
and Catholic churches were considered separate. However, they were
briefly reunited in 1439 after the Second Council of Florence, when
Catholic and Orthodox leaders met in Florence, Italy, but this unity did
not last.
 In 1453, Moscow replaced Constantinople as the head of the Orthodox
church after the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, and the center
of Eastern Orthodoxy shifted from Turkey and Greece (which fell under
Turkish and therefore Islamic rule) to Russia.
 The church was independent of the Russian government until the reign
of Peter the Great in the early 1700s, when he made it an extension of his
government to support his rule. It remained that way until the Russian
Revolution in 1917.
Spread of Eastern Orthodoxy

Comparison

Roman Catholicism
Eastern Orthodoxy
More spiritual
Static/reluctant to change
doctrines
God the father is the supreme
being, Jesus the son and the holy
spirit beneath him
Monotheistic
More practical, reasoning
Dynamic/beliefs can change over
Believed Jesus was
time
the Messiah and died so
believers could go to
God the father, Jesus the son, and
heaven
the holy spirit are all equal and of
Have Seven Sacraments
Deification (goal is for you to
become like god)
All bishops are equal, there is no
one single head of the church
Main holy text is
the Bible
Worship in
churches
All icons are two-dimensional
the same spirit
Salvation (goal is for your impure
soul to be saved by god)
Church is headed by a Pope
considered infallible
Statues, three-dimensional
representations
Comparison

Moscow
Jerusalem
Mecca
Moscow was made
prominent due to religion,
similar to Jerusalem in
Israel and Mecca in Arabia
Comparison

Protestant Reformation
The Great Schism
Orthodoxy split off due to
minor differences from the
parent religion, similar to
Sunni and Shi’ite Islam and,
later, Protestant and
Catholic Christianity.
These splits happened
because of geographical
and political differences in
the areas the religions were
in.
Sunni/Shi’ite Split
Comparison

Was eventually centered
geographically away from
its place of founding
(moved from
Constantinople to Russia)
similar to Buddhism (India
to East Asia) and
Christianity as a whole (the
Middle East to Europe) due
to leaders’ adoption of the
faith (Christianity) or
gradual spread by cultural
diffusion and trade
(Orthodox and Buddhism).
Middle East Mediterranean
to Russia
to Europe
India to
East Asia
Comparison

Cathedrals,
St. Peter’s
Basilica
Islamic Art, Dome of
the Rock
Hindu
Temples
It inspired great works of
art and architecture in the
form of beautiful places of
worship, similar to just
about every other religion,
and God was never
represented directly in art,
which is similar to Islam.
Comparison

Henry VIII
Peter the Great
Ismail
Peter the Great made it
Russia’s state religion to
consolidate his own power,
similar to how Henry VIII
in England adopted
Protestantism for his own
gain and how Ismail of the
Safavids used Shi’ism to
gain power.
Impact on Today’s World

 Today, Orthodoxy is a spiritual
guidance for people.
 Some people use the books written for Orthodoxy as a guideline of the
right
way to live.
 Orthodoxy helps unify people with the
same beliefs under one church.
 Orthodoxy helps people have the personal experience of truth that
they desire in the Orthodox Religion.
 Orthodoxy helps the religious followers achieve salvation; which is
their overall goal in life.
 The people of the Orthodox religion tend to think more abstract about
different issues.
 Orthodox people also tend to me more educational in the area of
science and philosophy.
Jobs Performed

 Michelle Story: PIRATES impacts by region, modern
impacts
 Alex Edquist: Chronology, comparisons/change
over time, images
Works Cited

 http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?arti
d=668&letter=J
 http://www.historyworld.net
 http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/filioq
ue.html
 http://www.irondequoitcatholic.org/index.php/St
/VladimirOfKiev
 http://www.stpaulsirvine.org/html/TheGreatSchis
m.htm
 http://www.iconsexplained.com/iec/iec_idb2g.htm

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