Neanderthals By, T. J., Jordan B., Emily, and Dylan Introduction • Many people believe that humans’ ancestors were apes, but if you read this PowerPoint, you may rethink that thought! Come along with us, sixth graders, to discover the secrets of how our ancestors (the Neanderthals) lived. Where They Lived • The Neanderthals Lived in Africa, Europe, and Asia about 100,000-40,000 years ago. Description of Shelters • Neanderthals lived in huts and tents like other ancestors of ours, but they also lived in caves. Their huts and tents were made by covering mammoth bones with animal hides, and then more bones and some mammoth tusks on top of the animal hides. Development of Language How did Neanderthals communicate with each other? Paintings! Paintings and carvings in caves show how some Neanderthal men and women lived. They drew animals and stick figures on cave walls.  Fire • Fire was a very useful tool for the Neanderthals. They would use it to scare off wild animals, and they used fire to cook raw foods. The Neanderthals started using fire when they began to live in East Africa. Fire changed almost ever part of their lives. • To make fire, Neanderthals used one fire stone and a iron pyrite! The stones were hit together until the iron pyrite released red-hot particles: the sparks! Neanderthals then let the sparks fall onto easily flammable material. That might be tinder fungus (that is a specific mushroom growing on trees) or sedges (a marshland plant). To keep the fire going, Neanderthals had to carefully blow on the spark, so that it turns into a small flame. Adding straw and dry wood, the spark became a real campfire!  Clothing • The materials the Neanderthals used for clothing were animal skins and fur. Then the Neanderthals used bone to put holes in the skins so they could put through sinew, which was used to tie the skins together to make clothing.. Food • Neanderthals hunted Woolly Mammoths during the Ice Age. • The men also hunted bison and reindeer. • Women and young girls gathered fruits, vegetables, roots, nuts, and berries. • Occasionally women also trapped small game. • During the warmer months, hunters traveled great distances tracking other large animals. Description of Physical Appearance •Neanderthals were short and stocky with large muscles. Tools • Stone axes were used to cut wood for fires. The Neanderthals also used bone to make holes in hide so that they could put sinew through and tie the sinew together to make clothing to keep them warm. They also made blankets and tent covers to cover their tents for protection from the weather.  • The Neanderthals made tools mainly from stone, so that time period was called the Stone Age. Paintings, Carvings, and Ceremonies • Neanderthals used animal furs and wood to make brushes for painting on cave walls to communicate and to tell stories. • “Death” ceremonies would include throwing flowers over the dead body, and burying the dead body of the family member or friend of theirs, sort of like a funeral. Conclusion So, as you can tell, Neanderthals were very interesting and were not so very different from humans today, despite the differences in technology. Now you should know how Neanderthals lived, ate, slept, and much, much more! Now it is time for… …a Quiz! Quiz! • How long ago did the Neanderthals live? • What kind of tool did the Neanderthals use to cut wood to make a fire? • How did the Neanderthals make their shelter, and what did they live in? Answers • Neanderthals lived from 100,000 - 40,000 years ago. • Neanderthals used stone axes to cut wood for fire. • The Neanderthals used animal hides to make huts and tents for shelter, and they also lived in caves. End Notes • 1. Early Humans Packet • 2. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book • 3. Ibid. • 4. Early Humans Packet • 5. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book • 6. Ibid. Slide 7 • 7. Ibid. Slide 8 • 8. Early Humans Packet Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 9 Slide 6 More End Notes • 9. Ibid. Slide 10 • 10. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book Slide 10 • 11. Early Humans Packet Slide 11 Bibliography California Visits Ancient Civilizations. Macmillan/McGraw Hill: New York, NY, 2007. Kearns, Marsha.“Neanderthal.” Early Humans. Creative Teaching Press: CA, 1993. “Neanderthal.” Neanderthal. http://www.earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/.