T. J., Jordan B., Emily, and Dylan
• Many people believe that humans’ ancestors
were apes, but if you read this PowerPoint,
you may rethink that thought! Come along
with us, sixth graders, to discover the secrets
of how our ancestors (the Neanderthals) lived.
Where They Lived
• The Neanderthals Lived in
Africa, Europe, and Asia
about 100,000-40,000
years ago.[1]
Description of Shelters
• Neanderthals lived in huts and tents like other
ancestors of ours, but they also lived in caves.
Their huts and tents were made by covering
mammoth bones with animal hides, and then
more bones and some mammoth tusks on top
of the animal hides.[2]
Development of Language
How did Neanderthals communicate with
each other?
Paintings! Paintings and carvings in caves
show how some Neanderthal men and
women lived. They drew animals and stick
figures on cave walls. [3]
• Fire was a very useful tool for the Neanderthals.[4] They
would use it to scare off wild animals, and they used fire to
cook raw foods. The Neanderthals started using fire when
they began to live in East Africa. Fire changed almost ever
part of their lives.
• To make fire, Neanderthals used one fire stone and a iron
pyrite! The stones were hit together until the iron pyrite
released red-hot particles: the sparks! Neanderthals then
let the sparks fall onto easily flammable material. That
might be tinder fungus (that is a specific mushroom
growing on trees) or sedges (a marshland plant). To keep
the fire going, Neanderthals had to carefully blow on the
spark, so that it turns into a small flame. Adding straw and
dry wood, the spark became a real campfire! [5]
• The materials the Neanderthals
used for clothing were animal
skins and fur. Then the
Neanderthals used bone to put
holes in the skins so they could
put through sinew, which was
used to tie the skins together to
make clothing..[6]
• Neanderthals hunted Woolly Mammoths during the
Ice Age.
• The men also hunted bison and reindeer.
• Women and young girls gathered fruits, vegetables,
roots, nuts, and berries.
• Occasionally women also trapped small game.
• During the warmer months, hunters traveled great
distances tracking other large animals.[7]
Description of Physical Appearance
•Neanderthals were short
and stocky with large
• Stone axes were used to cut wood for fires. The
Neanderthals also used bone to make holes in hide
so that they could put sinew through and tie the
sinew together to make clothing to keep them warm.
They also made blankets and tent covers to cover
their tents for protection from the weather. [9]
• The Neanderthals made tools mainly from stone, so
that time period was called the Stone Age.[10]
Paintings, Carvings, and Ceremonies
• Neanderthals used animal furs and wood to
make brushes for painting on cave walls to
communicate and to tell stories.
• “Death” ceremonies would include throwing
flowers over the dead body, and burying the
dead body of the family member or friend of
theirs, sort of like a funeral.[11]
So, as you can tell, Neanderthals were very
interesting and were not so very different from
humans today, despite the differences in
technology. Now you should know how
Neanderthals lived, ate, slept, and much, much
Now it is time for…
…a Quiz!
• How long ago did the Neanderthals live?
• What kind of tool did the Neanderthals use
to cut wood to make a fire?
• How did the Neanderthals make their shelter,
and what did they live in?
• Neanderthals lived from 100,000 - 40,000 years ago.
• Neanderthals used stone axes to cut wood for fire.
• The Neanderthals used animal hides to make huts
and tents for shelter, and they also lived in caves.
End Notes
1. Early Humans Packet
2. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book
3. Ibid.
4. Early Humans Packet
5. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book
6. Ibid.
Slide 7
7. Ibid.
Slide 8
8. Early Humans Packet
Slide 3
Slide 4
Slide 5
Slide 6
Slide 9
Slide 6
More End Notes
• 9. Ibid.
Slide 10
• 10. California Vistas Ancient Civilization book
Slide 10
• 11. Early Humans Packet
Slide 11
California Visits Ancient Civilizations.
Macmillan/McGraw Hill: New York, NY,
Kearns, Marsha.“Neanderthal.” Early Humans.
Creative Teaching Press: CA, 1993.
“Neanderthal.” Neanderthal.

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