Eastern Orthodoxy

Report
Eastern Orthodoxy
Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2006
Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew
of Eastern Orthodoxy
Introduction
Worldwide Adherents: c. 220,000,000
Countries: Mostly Eastern Europe and part of
Asia
History: Church in East before West
1. Paul was baptized in Damascus (Acts 9:1-19).
2. Believers first called Christians in Antioch (Acts 11:26).
3. Churches in Jerusalem and Antioch before Rome.
4. Earliest centers of Christian were in the East (Jerusalem,
Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople [Istanbul]).
Religions of the World
Total Christian
2,133,806,000
Roman Catholics
1,118,991,000
Independents
Protestants
Orthodox
Anglicans
425,170,000
375,815,000
219,501,000
79,718,000
Outline
I. Basic Beliefs
A. All 15 Essentials Doctrines
B. Decrees of the First 7 Councils
C. Divided from Roman
Catholics A. D. 1054
II. Other Beliefs and Practices
I. Basic Beliefs
A. All 15 Essentials Doctrines (held by all).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Human depravity
Mary’s virginity
Christ’s purity
Christ’s deity
Christ’s humanity
God’s unity
7. God’s tri-unity
8. The necessity of God’s grace
9. The necessity of our faith
10. Christ’s atoning death
11. Christ’s bodily resurrection
12. Christ’s bodily ascension
13. Christ present intercession
14. Christ’s bodily return
15. The Divine authority of the Bible
The Apostle’s Creed
• I believe [9] in God [6], the Father Almighty, the Creator
of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only Son,
our Lord [4]:Who was conceived of the Holy Spirit [7],
born of the Virgin Mary [2, 3], suffered [10] under
Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died [5], and was buried.
[He descended into hell.] The third day He arose again
from the dead [11].
• He ascended into heaven [12] and sits at the right hand of
God the Father [13] Almighty, whence He shall come to
judge the living and the dead [14]. I believe in the Holy
Spirit, the holy catholic [universal] church, the
communion of saints, the forgiveness [8] of sins [1], the
resurrection of the body, and life everlasting [14]. Amen.
• Note: All 14 salvation doctrines are in this Creed .
The Nicene Creed (325)
• We believe [9] in one God [6], the Father, the Almighty, maker of
heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.
• We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God,
eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, light from light, true
God from true God, begotten, not made [4] , of one Being [6] with the
Father; through him all things were made. For us and for our
salvation [10] he came down from heaven, was incarnate of the Holy
Spirit and the Virgin Mary [2, 3] and became truly human [5] . For our
sake he was crucified [10] under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and
was buried. On the third day he rose again [11] in accordance with the
Scriptures [15]; he ascended into heaven [12] and is seated at the
right hand of the Father [13]. He will come again in glory to judge the
living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end [14]. We believe
in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the
Father [and the Son], who with the Father and the Son is worshiped
and glorified [7], who has spoken through the prophets [15]. We
believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge
one baptism for the forgiveness [8] of sins [1]. We look for the
resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come [14]. Amen.
• *All 14 salvation doctrines plus Scripture (15) are contained here.
•
•
The Chalcedonian Creed (451)
Following, then, the holy fathers, we unite in
teaching all men to confess the one and only Son, our
Lord Jesus Christ. This selfsame one is perfect [3]both
in deity [4] and in humanness [5]; this selfsame one is
also actually God [4] and actually man, with a
rational soul and a body [5]. He is of the same reality
as God as far as his deity is concerned [7] and of the
same reality as we ourselves as far as his humanness is
concerned; thus like us in all respects, sin [1] only
excepted. Before time began he was begotten of the
Father, in respect of his deity, and now in these "last
days," for us and behalf of our salvation, this selfsame
one was born of Mary the virgin [2], who is God-bearer
in respect of his humanness.
• We also teach that we apprehend this one and only
Christ-Son, Lord, only-begotten -- in two natures [4,5];
and we do this without confusing the two natures,
without transmuting one nature into the other, without
dividing them into two separate categories, without
contrasting them according to area or function
The distinctiveness of each nature is not nullified by the
union. Instead, the "properties" of each nature are
conserved and both natures concur in one "person” [4,5]
and in one reality [hypostasis]. They are not divided or
cut into two persons, but are together the one and only
and only-begotten Word [Logos] of God, the Lord Jesus
Christ. Thus have the prophets of old [15] testified; thus
the Lord Jesus Christ himself taught [15] us; thus the
Symbol of Fathers [the Nicene Creed] handed down to
us. [It affirms the 15 essential doctrines]
I. Basic Beliefs
• A. All 15 Essential Doctrines
• B. Decrees of the First 7 Councils
The General Councils of the Church
• 1. First Council of Nicea (325)
–
–
–
–
–
Condemned Arianism as heretical
Affirmed the Trinity and full Deity of Christ
Asserted that Bishops can only be appointed by Bishops
Excommunication can only be by a Bishop
Bishops have authority only over their own region
• 2. First Council of Constantinople (381)
–
–
–
–
–
Affirmed Nicean Creed
Proclaimed Deity of Holy Spirit
United with Eastern Church on the Nicean Creed
Emperor Theodosius founded a Christian State
Paganism was condemned by the State
– Note: The “Theodotian Code” (438) was later modified by the
Justinian Code (539) that separated religious and civil matters to
State and Church respectively.
The General Councils of the Church
• 3. Council of Ephesus (431)
– Condemned Nestorianism (2 persons in Christ)
– Called Mary the “the God-bearer” (the “Mother of God”) or
better, of Mother of Jesus, the God-Man
• 4. Council of Chalcenon (451)
–
–
–
–
–
Condemned Eutchianism (Monophysitism)
Affirmed the three previous Councils
Acknowledged an Archbishop over Bishops
Asserted its authority to excommunicate Bishops
Gave “New Rome” (Constantinople) the same privileges as
Old Rome, saying, Old Rome only had such privileges
“because it was the royal city” (Canon 28)
The General Councils of the Church
• 5. Second Council of Constantinople (553)
– Affirmed the perpetual virginity of Mary
– Condemned Pope Virgilius as heretical
– Condemned Arianism, Nestorianism, Eutychianism, Monotholitism,
and Adoptinism
• 6. Third Council of Constantinople (680)
–
–
–
–
Reaffirmed the five prior Councils
Condemned Pope Honorius for teaching heresy
Condemned Monothelitism (which affirmed Christ has only one will)
Called Mary “Our holy Lady, the holy, immaculate, ever-virgin and
glorious Mary, truly and properly the Mother of God”
The General Councils of the Church
• 7. Second Council of Nicea (787)
– It ruled in favor of icons and venerating images
– It pronounced anathama on all who did not venerate icons
– It made a theoretical distinction between worship of God and veneration of
images (not followed in practice)
– [An alternate (iconoclatic) Council condemned it as idolatry]
– Note: These Councils are considered infallible.
Outline
I. Basic Beliefs
A. All 15 Essentials Doctrines
B. Decrees of the First 7 Councils
C. Divided from Roman Catholics in A. D.
1054 over the superiority of Pope and
the “filioque” clause (“and of the Son”).
1. Roman Catholic: The Holy Spirit
proceeds from the Father and the Son.
2. Eastern Church: The Holy Spirit
proceeds from the Father [only].
Note: The Bible favors Roman Catholic view (Jn. 15:26; 16:7,
13, 14; Gal. 5:6), although the Spirit could come from
the Father through the Son.
Outline
I. Basic Beliefs
A. All 15 Essentials Doctrines
B. Decrees of the First 7 Councils
C. Divided from Roman
Catholics A. D. 1054
II. Other Beliefs and Practices
II. Other Beliefs and Practices
A. Held in Common with Roman Catholics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Infant Baptismal Regeneration [tho by triune immersion]
Eucharist (Communion) has the real presence of Christ
Seven Sacraments (“Mysteries”)
Order of the Priesthood
The Authority of Tradition along with the Bible
Primacy of Bishop of Rome (First among equals) and
apostolic succession
7. Perpetual Virginity of Mary
8. Veneration of the Virgin Mary
9. Bodily Assumption of Mary
10. Prayers to Mary and other Saints
11. Prayers for the Dead
12. No Celibacy for Clergy (except Bishops)
13. Episcopal form of Church Government
14. Veneration of Icons
II. Other Beliefs and Practices
B. Not Held in Common with Roman
Catholics
1. Difference in Approach
2. Difference in Doctrine
Western vs. Eastern Church
1. Difference in Approach
Roman Church
Eastern Church
Christological
(Christ-centered)
Rational
Analogy
Earthly Focus
The Sacraments
Sanctification
Pneumatological
(Spirit-centered)
Mystical
Symbology
Heavenly Focus
The Mysteries
Deification
Western vs. Eastern Church
2. Difference in Doctrine
Roman Church
Eastern Church
Accepts Filiogue
Rejects Filioque
Accepts Purgatory
Accepts Apocrypha
Accepts Infallibility
Immaculate Conception
Rejects RC Purgatory
Rejects Apocrypha*
Rejects Infallibility
Rejects Immaculate Conception
*Apocrypha used devotionally, not doctrinally
NT Ch Roman Eastern Anglic Luth. Reformed Baptist
15 basic Doctrines X
X
Four Creeds
X
X
Process. of Spirit X
X
Infant Baptism
X
Baptismal Regen.
X
Episcopal Govt
X
Tradition
X
Priesthood
X
Purgatory
X
Immac. Conception
X
Apocrypha
X
Icons
X
7 Sacraments
X
Transubstantiation
X
Primacy of Pope
X
Mary Bodily Assumption X
Venerate Mary
X
Perpetual Virginity
X
Prayer to Mary and Saints X
Worship of Host
X
Works needed for Salvation X
Infallibility of Pope
X
Mary Mediatrix
X
X*=some
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
XXX
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X-=non-authoritative
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X*
X*
XX*
X*
X*
X*
X*
X*
X*
X*
X
X
X
X
X
X*
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
The History of the Conflict with Rome
8. Fourth Council of Constantinople (869)
Last of the Councils called by an Emperor
It affirmed the “filiogue” clause (that the Holy Spirit Proceeded
from the Son, as well as from the Father)
It condemned the schism of Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople
who challenged the filioque clause
9. First Lateran Council (1123)
First Council called by a Pope (Callistus)
It affirmed the “Concordat of Worms” (1122) which granted the
Roman Pope, not the Emperor, the right to invest a Bishop.
10. Second Lateran Council (1139)
Convoked by Pope Innocent II to reform the Church
Condemned the schism of Arnold of Bresia who spoke against
confession to a priest rather than to another lay person.
• 11. Third Lateran Council (1179)
– Convened by Pope Alexander III to counter anti-Pope Callistus III
– It affirmed that the right to elect a Pope was restricted to the college of
Cardinals
– The vote for Pope must be by 2/3 majority
• 12. Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
– Called by Pope Innocent III
– Affirmed Transsubstantiation, primacy of Bishop of Rome, and Seven
Sacraments
– Set up Office of the Inquisitors to investigate heresy and turned them over
to the State for punishment
• 13. First Council of Lyon (1245)
– Convoked by Pope Innocent IV to heal “five wounds” of the Church: 1)
Moral decadence of clergy; 2) Danger of Saracens (Muslims whom the
Crusaders fought); 3) Schism with Eastern Church; 4) Invasion of
Hungary by Tartars; 5) The Rupture between Church and emperor
Frederick II
– Only minor reforms were made
• 16. Council of Constance (1413-1418)
– Convoked by Pope John XXII to end the great schism of three Popes at once,
to reform the Church, and to combat heresy
– It condemned John Wycliffe (in 1415) after his death (in 1384) (His follower
John Huss was burned at the stake)
– Claimed that an Ecumenical Council has authority over the Pope
– “This Council holds its power direct from Christ; everyone, no matter his rank
of office, even if it is papal, is bound to obey it in whatever pertains to faith”
• 17. Council of Basel-Ferrara-Florence (1431-1437)
– Convened by Pope Martin V for union with the Eastern Church [not
successful]
– It focused on Procession of Holy Spirit, Purgatory, and Primacy of the Pope
on which the Eastern Church temporarily agreed
– After Constantinople was taken by Turks (1453) many Eastern Bishops
recanted and pronounced the Council of Basel heretical.
– Immaculate Conception of Mary declared biblical and Catholic
– [Later declared dogma by Pope Pius IX, 1854]

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