Module 1 PowerPoint – Neil Dempster

Report
Secondary Principals as Literacy Leaders (SPALL):
Literacy Leadership through Assessment
Module 1
Leading Learning: What’s in the Research?
Professor Neil Dempster – School of Education & Professional Studies, Griffith University
SESSION 1
Purposes:
• Synthesising general research findings about leadership
links with improved student learning outcomes
 Summarising research related to principals’ leadership of
literacy in the secondary school setting
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THE BIG PICTURE
THE BIG LEADERSHIP SHIFTS
From individual with sole
responsibility
to
Collective with shared
responsibility
From Leadership as
position
to
Leadership as activity
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DEFINITION
Leading Learning
School leaders, understanding and harnessing the contexts
in which they operate, mobilise and work with others to
articulate and achieve shared intentions that enhance
learning and the lives of learners.
MacBeath & Dempster (2009) following Leithwood & Riehl (2003)
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Three Leadership Fundamentals
1. Purpose
(what for?)
2. Context
(where?)
1. Human Agency
(who with?)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
(National College for School Leadership 2006)
1. After classroom teaching, leadership is the second most
significant in-school influence on students’ learning
o It accounts for 5-7% of the difference in student learning
o There has been no case of improvement in students’
achievement trajectory in the absence of talented
leadership (Leithwood et al, 2006)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
2. There is a verifiable repertoire of basic school leadership
practices
• Building vision and directions
• Understanding and developing people
• Designing the organisation (bringing function and structure
together)
• Managing the teaching and learning program (bringing
purpose and practice together)
Leithwood & Riehl (2005)
Bass & Avolio (1994)
Harris & Chapman (2002)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
3. The effective application of leadership practices is context
sensitive but the context is not everything – it should not be
allowed to render a leader powerless to make changes
Slatter, Lovett & Barlow (2006)
Mintrop & Papazian (2003)
Day (2005)
MacBeath et al (2007)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
4. Leaders improve teaching and learning indirectly through
influence on staff motivation, commitment and working
conditions
• they influence teachers’ pedagogical capacity least
(unless they are active in professional development)
• they have strong influence on working conditions
• they have moderate influence on motivation or
commitment
Robinson (2006, 2009)
Leithwood & Janter (2006)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
5. Greatest influence is felt when leadership is widely distributed
• shared leadership accounted for 27% of the variation in
student achievement across schools in the Mascall and
Leithwood studies
• this is much higher than the 5-7% reported consistently for
the effects of individual leaders.
Mascall & Leithwood (2007)
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
6. Some patterns of leadership distribution are more effective
than others
• there is consistent evidence about the ineffectiveness of
laissaz-faire leadership (Bass, 1985)
• there is no loss of a leader’s power and influence when
the power and influence of others increases (Malen, 1995)
• there is emerging evidence about the need for coordinated
patterns of leadership practice (Ensley, Hmieleski & Pearch, 2006;
Spillane, 2007; Harris, 2008; McKinsey and Company, 2010))
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SEVEN STRONG CLAIMS ABOUT SCHOOL
LEADERSHIP
7. Personal traits explain differences in leadership effectiveness
The most successful School Leaders are:
 open-minded
 ready to learn from others
 flexible in their thinking within a set of core values
 persistent in the pursuit of the school’s purpose
 resilient
 optimistic
Leithwood & Jantzi (2006)
Jacobson et al (2005)
Robinson et al (2009)
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A Summary of the National College for School
Leadership Research Review (UK; 2006)
Leaders affect learning by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
building vision and setting directions
understanding and developing teachers
designing effective organisational structures
coordinating the teaching and learning program
attending to the conditions for learning
sharing leadership broadly and deeply
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OECD (2008) ‘Improving School Leadership’
Leaders who enhance student learning do so by:
•
•
•
•
supporting and developing teacher quality
defining goals and measuring progress
managing resources strategically
collaborating with external partners
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Australian Council for Educational Research Review
(2009)
Leaders ensure high quality learning by:
• building a school culture of high expectations
• setting targets for improvement
• employing teachers who have deep knowledge and
understanding of key content areas
• enhancing staff and leadership capacity
• monitoring teacher practice, student learning and
performance continuously
• allocating physical and human resources to improve
learning
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NZ Government Best Evidence Synthesis from
Leadership Research (Robinson et al 2007, 2009)
Leaders affect learning by:
• promoting and participating in teacher professional
development
• planning, coordinating, monitoring and evaluating
teaching, learning and the curriculum
• establishing goals and expectations
• resourcing strategically
• ensuring an orderly and supportive environment
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The Cambridge Leadership for Learning (LfL)
Project (MacBeath et al 2009)
Leadership is connected to learning by:
•
•
•
•
•
maintaining a focus on learning
creating conditions favourable to learning
conducting disciplined dialogue about learning
sharing leadership
sharing accountability
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Secondary School Research Review Sources
Barnes, C. A., Camburn, E., Sanders, B. R., & Sebastian, J. (2010)
Bishop, A. R., Berryman, M. A., Wearmouth, J. B., & Peter, M. (2012).
Brundrett, M. (2006).
Burns, M. K. (2008).
Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. (2009)
Cravens, X., Goldring, E., Porter, A., Polikoff, M., Murphy, J., & Elliott, S. (under review).
Crum, K. S., & Sherman, W. H. (2008)
Day, C. (2005)
Day, C. (2005a)
Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., et al. (2009)
Day, C., Day, C., Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., et al. (2009a)
Dinham, S. (2005)
Fancera, S. F., & Bliss, J. R. (2011 )
Fink, D., & Brayman, C. (2006)
Fletcher, J., Greenwood, J., Grimley, M., & Parkhill, F. (2011)
Foster, R. (2004)
Gentilucci, J. L., & Muto, C. C. (2007)
Goldring, E., Porter, A. C., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & Cravens, X. (2009)
Goldring, E., Cravens, X., Murphy, J., Porter, A., Elliott, S., & Carson, B. (2009)
Greenwood, J., Fletcher, J., Parkhill, F., Grimley, M., & Bridges, S. (2009)
Gu, Q., Sammons, P., & Mehta, P. (2008)
Gurr, D., Drysdale, L., & Mulford, B. (2006)
Gurr, D., Drysdale, L., & Mulford, B. (2005)
Gurr, D., Drysdale, L., Swann, R., Doherty, J., Ford, P., & Goode, H. (2005)
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Secondary School Research Review Sources (cont’d)
Hallinger, P. (2005)
Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (2006)
Leech, D. F., & Fulton, C. R. (2008)
Leithwood, K., Day, C., Sammons, P., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2006)
Levin, B. (2010)
Louis, K. S., Wahlstrom, K. L., Michlin, M., Gordon, M., Thomas, E., Leithwood, K., et al. (2010)
May, S. (2007)
May, H., & Smyth, J. (2007)
May, H., & Wright, N. (2007)
McGhee, M. W., & Chulsub, L. (2007)
Moller, J., & Eggen, A. B. (2005)
Murphy, J. (2004)
Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2007)
Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., Goldring, E., & Porter, A. C. (2010)
Murphy, J., Goldring, E. B., Cravens, X. C., Elliott, S., & Porter, A. C. (2011)
O'Donnell, R. J., & White, G. P. (2005)
Opdenakker, M. C., & Van Damme, J. (2007)
Patterson, J. A., Eubank, H., Rathbun, S. E., & Noble, S. (2010)
Peariso, J. F. (2011)
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Secondary School Research Review Sources (cont’d)
Polikoff, M., May, H., Porter, A., Elliott, S., Goldring, E., & Murphy, J. (2009)
Porter, A. C., Murphy, J., Goldring, E., Elliott, S. N., Polikoff, M. S., & May, H. (2008)
Porter, A. C., Polikoff, M. S., Goldring, E., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & May, H. (2010)
Porter, A. C., Polikoff, M. S., Goldring, E. B., Murphy, J., Elliott, S. N., & May, H. (2010)
PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007)
PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2007a)
Quint, J. C., Akey, T. M., Rappaport, S., & Willner, C. J. (2007)
Robinson, V. M., Lloyd, C. A., & Rowe, K. J. (2008)
Sammons, P., Hopkins, D., Harris, A., Leithwood, K., Gu, Q., et al. (2007)
Sammons, P., Mujtaba, T., Earl, L., & Gu, Q. (2007)
Schaffer, E., Reynolds, D., & Stringfield, S. (2012)
Smyth, J. (2007)
Smyth, J., & Whitehead, D. (2007)
Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008)
Whitehead, D. (2007) Wright, N. (2007)
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General Findings from the Research Review
Research on principals’ literacy leadership to date focuses
predominantly on elementary or primary school principals.
Murphy warns:
 drawing conclusions for secondary school leaders based on
studies of instructional leadership in elementary schools alone is
naive
Murphy, 2004, p. 66
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General Findings (cont’d)
 Schools especially effective in literacy achievement enjoy
vigorous instructional leadership usually by the principal (Murphy,
2004; Peariso, 2011)
 Principals’ and other school leaders’ behaviours are intertwined in
secondary schools in producing outstanding student outcomes
(Dinham, 2005; MacBeath et al, 2009)
 Shared Leadership in secondary schools needs deliberate
combinations of principal, positional leaders and teachers to be
effective (Fullan, 1992; Ainscow, Hopkins, Southworth & West, 1994; MacBeath, 1998; Hargreaves,
2000; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003; Fullan, 2006; MacBeath, 2009; Levin, 2011)
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Secondary School Literacy Initiative (SSLI) Study
The SSLI in New Zealand found that the implementation of literacy
initiatives across the curriculum is complex in secondary schools
May & Wright (2007) May (2007) Wright (2007).
 the constant commitment of senior management and key
personnel is necessary
 teacher buy-in needs encouragement
 resistance occurs
 implications for departments/disciplines need clarity
 sustainability beyond project support varies
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General Findings (cont’d)
The research review conducted for the SPALL Project has shown
that there is limited, though growing knowledge about leadership
behaviours in the secondary school context which make strong
connections with literacy learning and achievement.
How principals’ make an impact on student literacy through
instructional leadership in secondary schools is in need of further
research.
The SPALL Project provides a timely opportunity for a study of this
kind of leadership action by principals and others sharing leadership
roles in secondary schools
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SO,
To Summarise…
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PURPOSE
School Leadership is for learning first and foremost.
Leaders need:
• deep knowledge of young people’s learning*
• evidence on which to base action
• practical strategies for teachers’ professional development
*Particular knowledge in at least one key curriculum area (Robinson,
2009) – and knowledge of cultural and social influences on learning
(Buckskin et al, 2008, Bishop and Berryman, 2011)
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CONTEXT
 Knowledge of the school’s context is essential to the educational
leader:
• the context has to be understood (globally, nationally and
locally);
• beneficial connections have to be made; and
• helpful networks must be harnessed in the school’s interests.
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HUMAN AGENCY (it’s what gets things done)
 This is the bedrock on which current thinking on leadership is
based:
• Distributed leadership is essential in schools – broad and
deep, inside and outside (Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2006; OECD, 2008)
• Types range on a continuum from dispersed to shared
(MacBeath, Oduro & Waterhouse, 2004)
• Sharing leadership should occur across roles and functions
(Leithwood & Riehl, 2003, Spillane 2006, Harris, 2007)
• Spread it to include students, family and community members
(Crowther, 2004; Dempster & Lizzio, 2006-10; OECD, 2008; Johnson and Jervis-Tracey,
2011)
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Synthesising the Research Findings
Those leading schools best affect student learning outcomes when:
1. They have an agreed and shared moral purpose;
2. There is ‘disciplined dialogue’ about learning in the school;
3. They plan and monitor learning and take account using a strong
achievement evidence base;
4. They are active professional learners with their teachers;
5. They attend to enhancing the conditions for learning;
6. They coordinate, manage and monitor the curriculum and
teaching;
7. They use shared leadership as the norm; and
8. They understand and connect with parent and wider community
support for learning.
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SESSION 2
Purpose:
• To reflect on the strength of each of the dimensions of the
Leadership for Literacy Learning Blue Print in participating
schools
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Questions for Self-reflection
1. How strongly would I rate the implementation of each of the Blue
Print domains in our school and what evidence do I have to
support my rating?
2. To which of the domains do I believe we should now turn our
attention?
3. How might we best use this instrument back at school?
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SESSION 3
Purpose:
• To practise the use of ‘Disciplined Dialogue’ in professional
conversations drawing on quantitative and qualitative evidence
gathered about selected Blue Print domains
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Structure of the Session
Three parts:
I. What is ‘disciplined dialogue’?
II.
How is ‘disciplined dialogue’ conducted?
III. What is the role of principals and other school leaders in hosting
professional conversations?
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What are professional conversations?
In medicine, psychology, social work and education:
 they are measured discussions related to particular cases with a
view to addressing needs, managing issues, improving
circumstances or facilitating change based on sound evidence.
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Why is a strong evidence base important to the
professions?
 It provides the basis upon which professional judgment is applied
 It underpins professional knowledge and learning
 It acts as an aid to professional accountability
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Professional Accountability: Essential tenets
derived from Erault (1992)
 A moral commitment to serve the interests of clients, patients or
students
 A professional obligation to extend one’s repertoire, to reflect on
evidence and experience and to develop one’s expertise
 A professional obligation to self-monitor and to review the
effectiveness of one’s practice in the interests of clients, patients
or students.
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Evidence should be used in:
• constructive problem talk (Robinson & Timperley, 2007)
• professional learning conversations (Earl & Timperley, 2009; Danielson,
2009)
• disciplined dialogue
(MacBeath & Dempster, 2009)
Call it what you will…
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What is Disciplined Dialogue?
By this we mean: all-embracing professional conversations that are
positively focused on the moral purpose of education.
Disciplined Dialogue is not based on stereotype, hearsay or
prejudice, but on reason and values, stimulated by helpful qualitative
and quantitative data.
From Swaffield and Dempster(2009)
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Dialogue should be ‘disciplined’ in at least two ways:
1. by a focus on data or evidence as the source for understanding
student learning and achievement
2. by a professional (and personal) commitment to improve teaching
and learning and the conditions which support them
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DISCIPLINED
DIALOGUE
A professional discussion which:
• reinforces ‘moral purpose’ as the motivation for action
• focuses on learning, achievement and key contributing factors
• scaffolds analysis on qualitative and quantitative data
• seeks improvement strategies as the outcome
The question now is: How is ‘Disciplined Dialogue’ conducted?
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Practice Example 1. The Ecological Footprint of
Household Pets (EASY)
The following numbers illustrate the Ecological Footprint for
five pets:
Household Pet Type
Alsatian
King Charles Spaniel
Domestic Cat
Guinea Pig
Canary
Weight
Kg
50
10
5
2
50g
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Footprint
SqM
3500
1000
1300
500
70
Yearly Cost
$
2000
1000
1200
Scraps
100
Disciplined Dialogue Questions
1. What do we see in these data?
2. Why are we seeing what we are?
3. What, if anything, should we be doing about it?
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What do we see in these data?
When we address this question we should exhaust the data for as
much descriptive detail as possible without jumping to explanations
or conclusions.
It takes discipline to do so.
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Why are we seeing what we are?
 This question enables those who understand the context to bring
their professional (and personal) judgment into play.
 Multiple reasons are possible from the perspectives of those
engaging in the discussion.
 Some explanations are likely to be more influential and credible
than others.
Try two perspectives – (i) Ecological Warriors
(ii) Pet Shop Owners
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What, if anything, should we be doing about this?
This question links discussion to moral purpose.
It acts as the motivation for decisions about what to do or not to do.
Priorities for action will be raised and discussed.
Professional judgment again is essential.
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Practice Example 2. (HARDER)
Secondary teachers’ views on the literacy demands of subject
teaching
The frequency data provided were gathered in a government
secondary school from teachers across years 8 to 12 (N=100).
No subject specific breakdown are shown, only aggregated
data are presented.
Cashen and Dempster (2012)
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Practice Example 3. (HARDER AGAIN)
 This example shows the reading level of each student in
three Year Nine classes plotted against the number of weeks
they have been at the school.
 The test was administered in the 40th school week.
 Transience is clearly a significant problem in the school.
(from Timperley & Wisman, 2003)
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Year Nine Reading
Teacher/
Week
2
3
Teacher A
1
2
Below
Level
1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
11
12
13
1
3
1
At Level
1
Above
Level
1
15
2
2
1
18
19
3
2
1
1
1
Above
Level
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
23
24
1
1
1
25
26
27
1
1
29
30
3
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
35
39
40
To
tal
1
25
12
7
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
2
3
18
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
31
1
2
2
2
1
25
3
2
1
Teacher A: 14 up to 20 weeks (14/25) Teacher B: 18 up to 20 weeks (18/31) Teacher C: 13 up to 20 weeks (13/25)
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32
1
3
1
28
1
1
Below
Level
1
22
1
1
1
21
2
1
1
1
20
2
1
At Level
Above
Level
17
1
Below
Level
At Level
16
1
Teacher B
Teacher C
14
1
1
1
15
6
Practice Example 4. (EASY)
A narrative from a colleague teaching physically disabled young
people in the Czechoslovakia of Iron Curtain days.
I have been teaching physically disabled students for thirty years and I find that the
smallest gain in skill by these children is highly motivating for the teachers and really
satisfying for the children. In my school, we create a patient environment and we focus
on small achievements. We accept that children and young people will need repeated
attempts. They will experience repeated failure accompanied by rising frustration. So
will the teachers.
We practice showing patience and giving support and encouragement to persist and at
all times with good humour. Laughter accompanies what we do and no-one thinks of
giving up. We think the smallest of gains is a great cause for celebration. For example
when we are teaching those severely physically disabled to feed themselves, we
applaud them ‘loud and long’ for getting a hand even close to the object spoon. Lifting
it off the table warrants ‘high fives’ all round and getting it to the mouth, even empty,
we see as a Gold Medal result worth three cheers for everybody!!
1. What do we hear in this narrative about the conditions of
learning?
2. Why do they do what they do?
3. What, if anything, should they do about their practices?
(What is happening in our school?)
Why do we do what we do?
(What if anything should we do about our practices?)
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What is the Role of School Leaders in Hosting Disciplined
Dialogue or Professional Conversations?
 Being actively involved in professional conversations
 Building trust and rapport – moving from ‘safe’ spaces to ‘risky’
places
 Fostering Shared Leadership and Communities of Practice
 Respecting teacher judgment
 Creating an ‘Inquiry Habit of Mind’
 Knowing the sources of evidence to support learning
Earl & Timperley (2009) Danielson (2009)
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Sources of qualitative and quantitative evidence
1. The school’s moral purpose and directions
2. Children’s learning and achievement
3. Teachers’ and leaders’ Professional Development
4. Curriculum coordination and the monitoring of teaching and
learning
5. Connections with Parents and the wider community
6. The conditions for learning –social, emotional, physical
7. Shared leadership arrangements and practices
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Disciplined Dialogue Outcomes
What happens when evidence-based
professional conversations are the norm?
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A focus on evidence-based professional conversations:







Creates research-mindedness
Reconnects leaders with core business
Grounds professional practice in evidence
Reinstates the significance of professional judgment
Makes ‘weak early signals’ readily apparent
Encourages teacher ‘buy in’ to changed strategies
Justifies feelings of satisfaction or otherwise
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To sum up…
Overall, when leaders host evidencebased professional conversations, the
professional knowledge and practice of
teachers is supported validated and
enhanced.
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References
Danielson, C. (2009) Talk about Teaching: Leading Professional
Conversations, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Dempster, N. (2009) Leadership for Learning: A Framework
Synthesising Recent Research, Edventures, Paper 13, Australian
College of Educators, Canberra.
Earl, L. & Timperley, H. (2009) Professional Learning Conversations,
Springer, The Netherlands.
Swaffield, S. & Dempster, N. (2009) Scaffolding Dialogue in
MacBeath, J. & Dempster, N. [Eds] Connecting Leadership and
Learning: Principles for Practice, Routledge, London.
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Outstanding Leadership for Learning:
 rests on an understanding that it is only through improved
teaching and learning that student performance is enhanced over
time.
 requires leaders’ never-ending attention to each of the domains in
the Leadership for Learning Framework
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Follow-up Tasks
Optional
1. Undertaking a review of the Personal Leadership Profile report
(with colleagues or a Regional Leadership Consultant)
2. Conducting ‘disciplined dialogue’ with members of staff based on
the Blue Print school assessment instrument
Expected
3. Leading a Cadre of staff members in a series of activities to
develop greater understanding of the literacy demands of
assessment tasks (the details for which will be provided in
Module 2)
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CLOSURE
This action research project is about improving students’ literacy.
It rests on:
1. a Leadership for Literacy Learning Blue Print for Principals who
adopt a commitment to disciplined dialogue using strong
qualitative and quantitative evidence to support deliberate action
in research-verified leadership domains or priority areas;
2. Four professional development stimulus modules to promote
leadership, assessment and literacy knowledge, thinking and
improvement action; and
3. A commitment to in-school shared leadership activity on
nominated tasks designed to connect verifiable research findings
to practice.
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Addendum: An Example on Moral
Purpose
Teachers’ Views about working in a low SES
school environment
 Staff members were asked to respond to 10 items
using a four point Likert Scale (see the next two
slides)
From MacBeath and Mortimore (2001)
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ITEM
Agree
Disagree
1. I feel that working in this low SES school is a positive challenge
for me
40%
60%
4. I believe I can motivate my students to want to learn no matter
their backgrounds
25%
75%
6. My teaching can raise the standard of achievement of low SES
children at this school
25%
75%
7. I can influence parents to play a positive role in their children’s
learning at this school
10%
90%
9. I really get a kick when my students improve in any way at all
40%
60%
Positives
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Negatives
Agree
Disagree
2. My work will make little difference to the children I teach here
60%
40%
3. The Low SES environment here has an overpowering influence
on children
90%
10%
5. Parents are unlikely to be able to help their children in the way I
would like
90%
10%
8. There are few satisfactions for me working in this kind of school
60%
40%
10. There is no way here of motivating children to behave
themselves all day
75%
25%
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