Report

Quantum ESPRESSO Workshop June 25-29, 2012 The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA Density Functional Theory An introduction Marco Buongiorno Nardelli Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry University of North Texas and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Overview • • • • Properties of matter naturally fall into two main categories determined , respectively, by the electronic ground state and the electronic excited states Electronic ground state determines equilibrium properties such as: cohesive energy, equilibrium crystal structure, phase transitions between structures, elastic constants, charge density, magnetic order, static dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities, nuclear vibration and motion, etc. Electronic excited states determine properties such: low-energy excitations in metals, optical properties, transport, etc. In our overview of electronic structure methods we will focus mostly on ground state properties, and we will cover the basic principles underlying the computational approaches, and we will learn how to compute some of the above properties using a state-of-the-art scientific software package: Quantum-ESPRESSO! Electronic ground state • Stable structure of solids are classified on the basis of their electronic ground state, which determines the minimum energy equilibrium structure, and thus the characteristics of the bonding between the nuclei – Closed-shell systems: rare gases and molecular crystals. They remain atom-like and tend to form close-packed solids – Ionic systems: compound formed by elements of different electronegativity. Charge transfer between the elements thus stabilizes structures via the strong Coulomb (electrical) interaction between ions – Covalent bonding: involves a complete change of the electronic states of the atoms with pair of electrons forming directional bonds – Metals: itinerant conduction electrons spread among the ion cores. Electron “gas” as electronic glue of the system Electronic ground state • • • From the above discussion it starts to appear clearly the fundamental role played by the electrons, and in a broader sense, by the “electron density”, in determining the properties of real materials. The electron density, n(r), can be measured experimentally, providing support for the bonding picture in different materials. Since the electron density determines the ground state properties of the material, its knowledge determines also the stable structure of the system: Knowledge of the stable structure of the system as a function of pressure or temperature is perhaps the most fundamental property of condensed matter: the equation of state – Electronic structure theory is able to predict the electronic density that corresponds to the minimum energy of the system as a function of volume (Ω), so, in particular, it is straightforward to compute: E = E(W) º Etotal (W) dE dW dP d 2E B = -W =W dW dW2 P=- E = total energy of the ground state P = pressure B = bulk modulus Electronic ground state • • • Large variations in volume (thus in pressure) can give rise to phase transitions in materials: at a given pressure a different structural phase becomes more stable than the “natural” one. Predictive power of electronic structure calculations in finding new structures of matter under different external conditions: the quantity to compute then becomes the enthalpy, H=E+PV. Example: Si and Ge phase diagram. Upon increasing pressure Si(Ge) changes its equilibrium structure from diamond to β-tin. Electronic ground state • • Elasticity: stress-strain relations in materials depend on the electronic ground state and can be obtained via electronic structure methods Variation of the total energy with respect to specific deformation of the shape of the materials gives direct information on elasticity properties: s ab = • 1 ¶E W ¶uab uαβ is the symmetric stress tensor that defines the deformation Example: stress in Si as a function of strain along the (100) direction: Electronic ground state • • Equilibrium atomic geometries and atomic vibrations: simply obtained by the electronic ground state Given a geometrical configuration of nuclei: E = E({R I }) FI = - dE dR I dFI d 2E CI,J = =dR J dR I dR J • • Where FI is the force on nucleus I and CIJ are the force constants for lattice dynamics Knowing the force on each nucleus for any configuration, allows us to search for – The ground state of the complete (electrons+nuclei) system – The dynamical evolution at finite temperature (through a molecular dynamics simulation) – The vibrational spectrum of the system The many-body problem • • • How do we solve for the electronic ground state? Solve a many-body problem: the study of the effects of interaction between bodies, and the behavior of a many-body system The collection of nuclei and electrons in a piece of a material is a formidable many-body problem, because of the intricate motion of the particles in the manybody system: Electronic structure methods deal with solving this formidable problem starting from the fundamental equation for a system of electrons ({ri}) and nuclei ({RI}) 2 2 Z e 1 e I Hˆ = Ñ 2i + å + å å 2me i 2 i ¹ j | ri - r j | i,I | ri - R I | 2 2 1 e -å ÑI2 + å 2 I ¹J | R I - R J | I 2MI 2 The many-body problem • Electronic terms: ZI e 2 2 1 e Ñ 2i + å + å å 2me i 2 i ¹ j | ri - r j | i,I | ri - R I | 2 • Nuclear terms: 2 1 e -å ÑI2 + å 2 I ¹J | R I - R J | I 2MI 2 • • • Electrons are fast (small mass, 10-31 Kg) - nuclei are slow (heavy mass, 10-27 Kg) natural separation of variables In the expression above we can ignore the kinetic energy of the nuclei, since it is a small term, given the inverse mass of the nuclei If we omit this term then the nuclei are just a fixed potential (sum of point charges potentials) acting on the electrons: this is called the Born-Oppenheimer approximation • The last terms remains to insure charge neutrality, but it is just a classical term (Ewald energy) The electronic Hamiltonian • • The Born-Oppenheimer approximation justifies the separation of electronic and ionic variables due to the different time-scales of the relative motion Electrons remain in their ground state as ions move: – Ions are responsible for the fixed external potential in which electrons move Hˆ = Tˆ + Vˆext + Vˆint + EII where T is the kinetic energy of the electrons, Vext is the potential acting on the electrons due to the nuclei Vˆext = åVI (| ri - R I |) i,I Vint is the electron-electron interaction term and EII is the classical energy term of the system of ionic point charges (Here we take =me=1) The electronic Hamiltonian • In quantum mechanical terms, the system of the electrons in the external potential of the atoms is described by the many-body wavefunction of the system Y = Y(r1,r2 ,...,rN ;s1,s2 ,...,sN ) = Y({ri ;si }) where | Y({ri ;si }) |2 dr N • is the quantum mechanical probability of finding the systems of electrons with coordinates within {r,r+drN} and spin sN The many-body wavefuntion for the electrons can be obtained solving the Schroedinger equation for the system: ˆ = EY HY where E is the ground state energy of the system in the external potential of the ions. The many-body electron wavefunction • • The fundamental problem of electronic structure theory is the evaluation of the manybody electron wavefunction Knowledge of Ψ allows us to evaluate all the fundamental properties of the system as expectation values of quantum mechanical operators O= • Y Oˆ Y Y Y ˆ d r d r d r Y ({r})OY({r}) ò º ò d r d r d r Y({r}) 3 3 1 * 3 N 2 3 3 1 2 3 N 2 For example, a quantity of great relevance in the description of the electronic system is the density of particles (electron density) n(r) = ˆ Y Y n(r) Y Y º 3 3 d r d ò 2 r3 d 3rN å Y({r}) 3 3 ò d r1d r2 s d 3rN Y({r}) that is the expectation value of the density operator ì 1 if r = ri ˆ = å d (r - ri ) = ïí n(r) i ïî0 if r ¹ ri 2 2 The many-body electron wavefunction • Main quantity is indeed the ground state energy E that is calculated as the expectation value of the Hamiltonian (it follows from the Schroedinger equation): E= • • Y Hˆ Y Y Y º Hˆ = Tˆ + Vˆint + ò d 3rVext (r)n(r) The ground state wavefunction Ψ0 is the one that corresponds to the state with the lowest energy that obeys all symmetries of particles and conservation laws It allows us to introduce a “variational principle” for the ground state: E éë Y ùû ³ E0 E0 = min E éë Y ùû Y Ground state properties • • • • Ground state properties, determined by the knowledge of the ground state wavefunction, include total energy, electron density and correlation function for the system of the electrons in the external potential of the atoms In the limit of small perturbations, also excited state properties can be derived, using what, in quantum mechanics, is called “perturbation theory” For instance, small ionic displacements around the equilibrium positions will give us information on the forces acting on the atoms, or more in general, on the vibrational properties of the system Force theorem (aka Hellman-Feynman theorem), one of the most fundamental theorems in quantum mechanics ¶E ¶E ¶Hˆ ¶Y ˆ ¶Y FI = =- Y Y H Y - Y Hˆ - II ¶R I ¶R I ¶R I ¶R I ¶R I • Since the middle terms cancel at the ground state (by the definition of ground state wavefunction): FI = - ¶V (r) ¶E ¶E = - ò d 3rn(r) ext - II ¶R I ¶R I ¶R I Forces depend on the ground state electron density! How do we solve the electronic structure problem? • • Solving for Ψ is a formidable problem - electron-electron interactions, that is long-range Coulomb forces, induce correlations that are basically impossible to treat exactly - independent electrons approximations To appreciate the origin of this point of view, it is helpful to separate the different Coulombic contributions (classical and interacting) to the description of the electronic system E C = Vint + E CC where E CC = EHartree + ò d 3rVext (r)n(r) + EII • EHartree is the self-interaction energy of the electron density, treated as a classical charge density EHartree = • 1 3 3 n(r)n(r ') d rd r ' ò 2 |r -r '| Vint is the difficult part for which approximations are needed. In independent electron approximations, this part is most often included as an effective potential fitted to other more accurate data Electronic structure methods • In independent electron approximations, the electronic structure problem involves the solution of a Schroedinger-like equation for each of the electrons in the system 2 é ù s 2 s ˆ Heff y (r) = ê Ñ +Veff (r)ú y i (r) = e isy is (r) ë 2me û s i • • • In this formalism, the ground state energy is found populating the lowest eigenstates according to the Pauli exclusion principle Central equation in electronic structure theory. Depending on the level of approximation we find this equation all over: – Semi-empirical methods (empirical pseudopotentials, tight-binding) – Density Functional Theory – Hartree-Fock and beyond Mathematically speaking, we need to solve a generalized eigenvalue problem using efficient numerical algorithms The tight-binding method • Solution of an effective Hamiltonian obtained as a superposition of Hamiltonians for isolated atoms plus corrections coming from the overlap of the wavefuctions (atomic orbitals) Hˆ eff = å Hˆ atom + DU(r) • • • Very efficient from a computational point of view can handle reasonably large systems (between ab initio and atomistic) Needs parameters form experiments or ab initio calculations Hartree-Fock methods • • Standard method for solving the many-body wavefunction of an electronic system starting from a particular ansatz for the expression of Ψ A convenient form is to write a properly antisymmetrized (to insure the Pauli principle is satisfied) determinant wavefunction for a fixed number of electrons with a given spin (Slater determinant), and find the single determinant that minimizes the total energy for the full interacting Hamiltonian æ y 11 y 12 1 ç 2 2 Y= det y y 1 ç 1 2 (N !) 2 ç è • • ö ÷ ÷ ÷ ø Use of this wavefunction ansatz gives rise to equations of the form of noninteracting electrons where the effective potential depends upon the particular electronic state Methodologies to solve these equations have been developed mostly in the framework of quantum chemistry calculations (J. Pople, Nobel prize for Chemistry, 1998 - GAUSSIAN: quantum chemistry code, http://www.gaussian.com) “Exchange” and “Correlation” • The basic equations that define the Hartree-Fock method are obtained plugging the Slater determinant into the electronic Hamiltonian to derive a compact expression for its expectation value é 1 ù Y Hˆ Y = å ò dry is* (r) ê - Ñ 2 +Vext (r) úy is (r) + EII i,s ë 2 û 1 1 s * s s * + å ò drdr 'y i i (r)y j j (r ') y isi (r)y j j (r ') 2 i, j ,si ,s j |r -r '| - å ò drdr 'y is* (r)y s* (r ') j i, j,s • • 1 y sj (r)y is (r ') |r - r '| Direct term Exchange term Direct term is essentially the classical Hartree energy (acts between electrons with different spin states (i=j terms cancel out in the direct and exchange terms) Exchange term acts only between same spin electrons, and takes care of the energy that is involved in having electron pairs with parallel or anti-parallel spins together with the obedience of the Pauli exclusion principle “Exchange” and “Correlation” • • • • • • Exchange term is a two-body interaction term: it takes care of the many-body interactions at the level of two single electrons. In this respect it includes also correlation effects at the two-body level: it neglects all correlations but the one required by the Pauli exclusion principle Since the interaction always involve pairs of electrons, a two-body correlation term is often sufficient to determine many physical properties of the system In general terms it measures the joint probability of finding electrons of spin s at point r and of spin s’ at point r’ Going beyond the two-body treatment of Hartree-Fock introduces extra degrees of freedom in the wavefunctions whose net effect is the reduction of the total energy of any state This additional energy is termed the “correlation” energy, Ec and is a key quantity for the solution of the electronic structure problem for an interacting many-body system Towards Density Functional Theory • The fundamental tenet of Density Functional Theory is that the complicated manybody electronic wavefunction Ψ can be substituted by a much simpler quantity, that is the electronic density n(r) = • • ˆ Y Y n(r) Y Y º 3 3 ò d r2d r3 3 3 d r d ò 1 r2 d 3rN å Y({r}) 2 s d 3rN Y({r}) 2 This means that a scalar function of position, n(r), determines all the information in the many-body wavefunction for the ground state and in principle, for all excited states n(r) is a simple non-negative function subject to the particle conservation sum rule 3 n(r)d r =N ò where N is the total number of electrons in the system Definitions Function: a prescription which maps one or more numbers to another number: y = f (x) = x2 Operator: a prescription which maps a function onto another function: ¶2 ¶2 O = 2 so that Of (x) = 2 f (x) ¶x ¶x Functional: A functional takes a function as input and gives a number as output: F[f (x)] = y Here f(x) is a function and y is a number. An example is the functional to integrate x from –∞ to ∞: ¥ F[f (x)] = ò f (x)dx -¥ Towards Density Functional Theory • • Density Functional Theory (DFT) is based on ideas that were around since the early 1920’s: Thomas-Fermi theory of electronic structure of atoms (1927) – Electrons are distributed uniformly in the 6-dimensional space (3 spatial coordinates x 2 spin coordinates) at the rate of 2 electrons per h3 of volume – There is an effective potential fixed by the nuclear charges and the electron density itself Energy functional for an atom in terms of the electron density alone 1 n(r)n(r ') 3 3 d rd r ' òò 2 |r - r '| Local exchange ETF éën(r)ùû = C1 ò n 3 (r)d 3r + ò Vext (r)n(r)d 3r + C2 ò n 3 (r)d 3r + 5 Kinetic energy • • • 4 Need approximate terms for kinetic energy and electronic exchange - no correlations Kinetic energy of the system electrons is approximated as an explicit functional of the density, idealized as non-interacting electrons in a homogeneous gas with density equal to the local density at any given point. Local exchange term later added by Dirac (still used today) Thomas-Fermi method • The ground state density and energy can be found by minimizing the functional E[n] for all possible n(r) subject to the constraint on the total number of electrons • Using the method of Lagrange multipliers, the solution can be found by an unconstrained minimization of the functional • where µ (Lagrange multiplier) is the Fermi energy For small variations of the density δn(r), the condition for a stationary point leads to the following relation between density and total potential • with Only one equation for the density! remarkably simpler than the full many-body Schroedinger equation with 3N degrees of freedom for N electrons The Hoenberg-Kohn theorems • • • The revolutionary approach of Hohemberg and Kohn in 1964 was to formulate DFT as an exact theory of a many-body system The formulation applies to any system of interacting particles in an external potential Vext(r), including any problem of electrons and fixed nuclei, where the hamiltonian can be written Foundation of Density Functional Theory is in the celebrated Hoenberg and Kohn theorems Hohenberg-Kohn theorems • DFT is based upon two theorems: – Theorem 1: For any system of electrons in an external potential Vext(r), that potential is determined uniquely, except for a constant, by the ground state density n0(r) – Corollary 1: Since the Hamiltonian is thus fully determined it follows that the many-body wavefunction is determined. Therefore, all properties of the system are completely determined given only the ground state density n0(r) – Theorem 2: A universal functional of the energy E[n] can be defined in terms of the density n(r), valid for any external potential Vext(r). For any particular Vext the exact ground state of the system is determined by the global minimum value of this functional – Corollary 2: The functional E[n] alone is sufficient to determine the ground state energy and density. In general, excited states have to be determined by other means. – The exact functionals are unknown and must be very complicated! Hohenberg-Kohn theorems • • Proofs of H-K theorems are exceedingly simple, and both based on a simple reduction ad absurdum argument 1 Proof of Theorem 1: suppose there were two different external potentials Vext 2 and Vext with same ground state density, n(r). The two potentials lead to two different Hamiltonians with different wavefunctions, that are hypothesized to lead to the same density. Then: E (1) = Y(1) Hˆ (1) Y(1) < Y(2) Hˆ (1) Y(2) which leads to (1) (2) E (1) < Y(2) Hˆ (1) Y(2) = E (2) + Y(2) Hˆ (1) - Hˆ (2) Y(2) = E (2) + ò d 3r {Vext (r) -Vext (r)}n(r) But changing the labelling we can equally say that (2) (1) E (2) < E (1) + ò d 3r {Vext (r) -Vext (r)}n(r) Summing the above expression we get the absurd result E(1)+ E(2)< E(2)+ E(1) Hohemberg-Kohn theorems • • • • • • There cannot be two different external potentials differing by more than a constant which give rise to the same non-degenerate ground state charge density. The density uniquely determines the external potential to within a constant. Then the wavefunction of any state is determined by solving the Schroedinger equation with this Hamiltonian. Among all the solutions which are consistent with the given density, the unique ground state wavefunction is the one that has the lowest energy. BUT: we are still left with the problem of solving the many-body problem in the presence of Vext(r) EXAMPLE: electrons and nuclei - the electron density uniquely determines the positions and types of nuclei, which can easily be proven from elementary quantum mechanics, but we still are faced with the original problem of many interacting electrons moving in the potential due to the nuclei Hohenberg-Kohn theorems • • Theorem 2 gives us a first step towards an operative way to solve the problem Theorem 2 can be proved in a very similar way, and the demonstration leads to a general expression for the universal functional of the density in DFT EHK [n] = T[n] + Eint [n] + ò d 3rVext (r)n(r) + EII º FHK [n] + ò d 3rVext (r)n(r) + EII • FHK[n] is a universal functional of the density that determines all the many-body properties of the system • PROBLEM: we do not know what is this functional! We only know that: – is a functional of the density alone – is independent on the external potential (thus its universality) It follows that if the functional FHK[n] were known, then by minimizing the total energy of the system with respect to variations in the density function n(r), one would find the exact ground state density and energy. • Hohenberg-Kohn extensions • • Hohenberg-Kohn theorems can be generalized to several types of particles special role of the density and the external potential in the Hohenberg-Kohn theorems is that these quantities enter the total energy explicitly only through the simple bilinear integral term • If there are other terms in the Hamiltonian having this form, then each such pair of external potential and particle density will obey a Hohenberg-Kohn theorem For example, Spin Density Functional Theory: Zeeman term that is different for spin up and spin down fermions in external magnetic fields All argument above can be generalized to include two types of densities, the particle density and the spin density • • with a density functional • In absence of magnetic fields, the solution can still be polarized (as in unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory) Kohn and Sham ansatz • • • • • H-K theory is in principle exact (there are no approximations, only two elegant theorems) but impractical for any useful purposes Kohn-Sham ansatz: replace a problem with another, that is the original manybody problem with an auxiliary independent-particle model Ansatz: K-S assume that the ground state density of the original interacting system is equal to that of some chosen non-interacting system that is exactly soluble, with all the difficult part (exchange and correlation) included in some approximate functional of the density. Key assumptions: – The exact ground state density can be represented by the ground state density of an auxiliary system of non-interacting particles. This is called “non-interacting-V-representability”; – The auxiliary Hamiltonian contains the usual kinetic energy term and a local effective potential acting on the electrons Actual calculations are performed on this auxiliary Hamiltonian 1 HKS (r) = - Ñ2 +VKS (r) 2 through the solution of the corresponding Schroedinger equation for N independent electrons (Kohn-Sham equations) Kohn and Sham ansatz Non-interacting auxiliary particles in an effective potential Interacting electrons + real potential • The density of this auxiliary system is then: n(r) = å å | y is (r) |2 • s i =1,N The kinetic energy is the one for the independent particle system: 1 1 s 2 s Ts = - å å y i (r) Ñ y i (r) = å å | Ñy is (r) |2 2 s i =1,N 2 s i =1,N • We define the classic electronic Coulomb energy (Hartree energy) as usual: EHartree [n] = 1 n(r)n(r ') 3 3 d rd r ' 2 òò |r -r '| Kohn and Sham equations • Finally, we can rewrite the full H-K functional as EKS [n] = Ts [n] + ò d 3rVext (r)n(r) + EHartree [n] + EII + E xc [n] • All many body effects of exchange and correlation are included in Exc E xc [n] = FHK [n] - (Ts [n] + EHartree [n]) = Tˆ - Ts [n] + Vˆint - EHartree [n] • • • So far the theory is still exact, provided we can find an “exact” expression for the exchange and correlation term If the universal functional Exc[n] were known, then the exact ground state energy and density of the many-body electron problem could be found by solving the Kohn-Sham equations for independent particles. To the extent that an approximate form for Exc[n] describes the true exchangecorrelation energy, the Kohn-Sham method provides a feasible approach to calculating the ground state properties of the many-body electron system. Kohn and Sham equations • The solution of the Kohn-Sham auxiliary system for the ground state can be viewed as the problem of minimization with respect to the density n(r) that can be done varying the wavefunctions and applying the chain rule to derive the variational equations: subject to the orthonormalization constraint • Since • One ends up with a set of Schroedinger-like equations where HKS is the effective Hamiltonian with Kohn and Sham equations • • The great advantage of recasting the H-K functional in the K-S form is that separating the independent particle kinetic energy and the long range Hartree terms, the remaining exchange and correlation functional can be reasonably approximated as a local or nearly local functionals of the electron density Local Density Approximation (LDA): Exc[n] is a sum of contributions from each point in space depending only upon the density at each point independent on other points LDA 3 E xc [n] = ò d rn(r)e xc (n(r)) • • • where e xc (n) is the exchange and correlation energy per electron. e xc (n) is a universal functional of the density, so must be the same as for a homogeneous electron gas of given density n The theory of the homogeneous electron gas is well established and there are exact expression (analytical or numerical) for both exchange and correlation terms 0.458 Exchange as e x (n) = where rs is defined as the average distance between rs 4p 1 electrons at a given density n : • 3 rs3 = n Correlations from exact Monte Carlo calculations (Ceperley, Alder, 1980) Kohn and Sham equations • • • • The eigenvalues are not the energies to add or subtract electrons from the interacting many-body system Exception: highest eigenvalue in a finite system is minus the ionization energy, -I. No other eigenvalue is guaranteed to be correct by the Kohn-Sham construction. However, the eigenvalues have a well-defined meaning within the theory and they can be used to construct physically meaningful quantities – perturbation expressions for excitation energies starting from the Kohn-Sham eigenfunctions to obtain new functionals – explicit many-body calculation that uses the Kohn-Sham eigenfunctions and eigenvalues as input. Commonly done in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations In rigorous terms, the eigenvalues in the KS theory have a well defined mathematical meaning: derivative of the total energy with respect to the occupation of a state Kohn and Sham equations • • • • • The previous result, trivial in the non-interacting case, raises interesting issues in the KS case Given the expression for the exchange and correlation energy, one can derive the expression for the exchange and correlation potential Vxc It can be shown that the response part of the potential (the derivative of the energy wrt the density) can vary discontinuously between states giving rise to discontinuous jumps in the eigenvalues: “band-gap discontinuity” Critical problem of the gap in an insulator: the eigenvalues of the ground state KohnSham potential should not be the correct gap, at least in principle. Indeed, it is well known that most known KS functionals underestimate the gap of insulators, however, this is an active field of research and new developments are always possible. Kohn and Sham equations • • • • • Finally, the set of K-S equations with LDA for exchange and correlation give us a formidable theoretical tool to study ground state properties of electronic systems Set of self-consistent equations that have to be solved simultaneously until convergence is achieved Note: K-S eigenvalues and energies are interpreted as true electronic wavefunction and electronic energies (electronic states in molecules or bands in solids) Note: K-S theory is a ground-state theory and as such is supposed to work well for ground state properties or small perturbations upon them Extremely successful in predicting materials properties - golden standard in research and industry Local Density Approximation • • • Although it might seem counterintuitive, solids can be often considered as close to the limit of the homogeneous electron gas = electron gas immersed in a uniformly positive charge background (true for metals, increasingly less true for very inhomogeneous charge distributions such as in nanostructures and isolated molecules) In this limit it is known that exchange and correlation (x-c) effects are local in character and the x-c energy is simply the integral of the x-c energy density at each point in space assumed to be the same as a homogeneous electron gas with that density Generalizing to the case of electrons with spin (spin-polarized or unrestricted), we can introduce the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA) LSDA E xc [n- ,n¯ ] = ò d 3rn(r)e xc (n- (r),n¯ (r)) • • • Most general local expression for the exchange and correlation energy Ultimately, the validity of LDA or LSDA approximations lies in the remarkably good agreement with experimental values of the ground state properties for most materials Can be easily improved upon without loosing much of the computational appeal of a local form Local Density Approximation • • • • • The rationale for the local approximation is that for the densities typical of those found in solids, the range of the effects of exchange and correlation is rather short-range = the exchange and correlation hole is well localized However, there is no rigorous proof of this, only actual observations and one should test different cases individually Problem of self-interactions: in the Hartree-Fock approximation the unphysical self term in the Hartree interaction (the interaction of an electron with itself) is exactly cancelled by the non-local exchange interaction. In the local approximation to exchange, the cancellation is only approximate and there remain spurious self-interaction terms that are negligible in the homogeneous gas but large in confined system such as atoms (need of Self-Interaction Corrections or SIC) However, in most known cases LSDA works remarkably well, due to the lucky occurrence that the exchange and correlation hole, although approximate, still satisfies all the sum rules. Generalized Gradient Approximations • • • The first step beyond the L(S)DA approximation is a functional that depends both on the magnitude of the density n(r) and of its gradient |n(r)|: Generalized Gradient Approximations (GGA’s) where higher order gradients are used in the expansion: where Fxc is a dimensionless function and εxhom is the exchange energy of the uniform electron gas. Gradients are difficult to work with and often can lead to worse results. There are however consistent ways to improve upon L(S)DA using gradient expansions Most common forms differ by the choice of the F function: PW91, PBE, BLYP,… Beyond GGA • • Beyond GGA’s: Non-local density functionals: functionals that depends on the value of the density around the point r (Average Density and Weighted Density Approximations) where • Orbital dependent functionals: mostly useful for systems where electrons tend to be localized and strongly interacting – SIC - self-interaction corrected functionals – LDA+U - local functional + orbital-dependent interaction for highly localized atomic orbitals (Hubbard U) – EXX (exact exchange) - functionals that include explicitly the exact exchange integral of Hartree-Fock – Hybrid functionals (B3LYP) - combination of orbital-dependent Hartree-Fock and explicit DFT. Most accurate functional on the market - most preferred for chemistry calculations Beyond GGA • • • • • • • • SIC - methods that use approximate functionals and add “self-interaction corrections” to attempt to correct for the unphysical self-interaction in many functionals for exchange and correlation Exc Old approach proposed first by Hartree himself to compute the electronic properties of atoms: different potential for each occupied state by subtracting a self-interaction term due to the charge density of that state. In extended system such a simple approach does not work and one has to resort to more sophisticated ways to subtract the spurious interaction. Most useful for describing magnetic order and magnetic states in transition metal oxides and similar. LDA+U - LDA or GGA type calculations coupled with an additional orbital dependent interaction, usually considered only for highly localized atomic-like orbitals on the same site, as the U interaction in Hubbard models. The overall effect is to shift the energy of the atomic-like orbitals wrt all the other levels The “U” parameter is often taken from “constrained density functional” calculations so that the theories do not contain adjustable parameters. Mostly useful in transition metal systems Beyond GGA • • Orbital dependent functionals - expressing Exc explicitly in terms of the independent particle orbitals, naturally implies that Exc has discontinuities at filled shells - essential for a correct description of the energy gap in insulators Search for Optimized Effective Potentials (OEP): mainly applied to the Hartree-Fock exchange functional, which is straightforward to write in terms of the orbitals, which is called “exact exchange” or “EXX”. Beyond GGA • Hybrid functionals - combination of orbital-dependent Hartree-Fock and an explicit density functional. Simplest form “half-and-half”: • More sophisticated forms involve mixing of different exchange and correlation models, as in B3LYP, where and coefficients are fitted to atomic and molecular data. Certain degree of empirical fitting is required - determines the accuracy of the model.