Supporting Language and Early Literacy: at Home and in Early Childhood and Community Settings Session 2: Language and Vocabulary Your … • (insert your name/title here) • Insert your co-presenter’s name/title here) for this Session … Participants will: • Become familiar with standards that apply to language and vocabulary development • Explain how language and vocabulary development is related to later reading ability • Identify strengths and areas for improvement in current language practices through a selfassessment process • Use a process for selecting and teaching vocabulary words • Describe strategies adults can use to support language and vocabulary development for today’s Session Check-in activity Discussion in pairs or small groups: • What do you hope to achieve by participating in this session? • What are your expectations of the facilitator(s) in this session? Guidance from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction: • Deliver content-rich curriculum with challenging but achievable goals in ways that honor and respect the unique learning needs of young children • Use a play-based curriculum to develop self regulation, language, cognition, and social competence • Core or universal curriculum should include support for all developmental domains and content areas as described in the WMELS The Wisconsin Model for Response to Intervention: Applications in Early Childhood Settings. WI Dept. of Public instruction, June 2012 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/curriculum-assessment-rtl-forpreschool.php Dual Language Learners (DLLs) “Children, birth to 5, who are learning 2 or more languages at the same time, as well as those learning a second language (English) while continuing to develop their home or first language.” Reinl, R. Language in Play: Introduction to the Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards, Webinar 2013 www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Universal practices, the foundation for meeting the needs of all children, includes differentiated instruction • Adaptations and modifications to meet the needs of individual children essential – it’s Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)! Dual Language Learners (DLLs) For guidance and support for serving DLLs, refer to the following resources: • WIDA Early Years www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners Serving Dual Language Learners Facts and Tips: http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/dual-languagelearners-facts-and-tips.php • Office of Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic Exposure to print, books, and read alouds are important, but not enough to prepare children to become readers and writers. Intentional teaching - using shared (dialogic) reading, shared writing, and multiple opportunities to interact with writing, letters, sounds, and spoken words - is necessary. Children might also need some explicit developmentally appropriate instruction to learn vocabulary, phonological awareness, the alphabet, and print concepts. WISCONSIN MODEL EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS Teaching Cycle Assessment Gathering information to determine what the child can do and what the child is ready to learn • Data Collection • Data Analysis Implementation Providing meaningful, experiential activities that support individual and group goals guided by supportive interaction and relationships Planning and Curriculum Goals Deciding what should be done to promote development and what we want children to learn • Needs Identification & Prioritization • Planning (Strategy/Indicators) National guidance Children need 3 sets of interrelated skills and knowledge, taught and cultivated over time, to reach reading proficiency: • language and communication skills • content knowledge • “mechanics” of reading A Governor’s Guide to Early Literacy: Getting All Students Reading by Third Grade, National Governors Association, Washington, DC., 2013 http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/2013/1310NGAEarlyLiteracyReportWeb.pdf National guidance •“Research finds that, while children typically develop all of these skills during the first eight years of life*, the mastery of language & communication skills is more likely to distinguish good readers from poor readers in the long run.” *language and communication skills; content knowledge; & “mechanics” of reading A Governor’s Guide to Early Literacy: Getting All Students Reading by Third Grade, National Governors Association, Washington, DC., 2013, p. 12 http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/2013/1310NGAEarlyLiteracyReportWeb.pdf National guidance • simple vocabulary knowledge- not a strong predictor of later reading comprehension • Vocabulary knowledge in the context of strong oral language skills is essential • Each is dependent on the other to be effective Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, 2008 http://familieslearning.org/public/uploads/editor/files/nelp-report.pdf Research-based Early Literacy Content Areas • Oral Language (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Vocabulary (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Phonological Awareness (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Alphabet Knowledge (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Concepts about Print (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Writing (WMELS C. Early Literacy) Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards (WMELS) Domain III. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION A. Listening and Understanding A.EL.1 - Derives meaning through listening to communications of others and sounds in the environment A.EL.2 - Listens and responds to communication with others A.EL.3 - Follows directions of increasing complexity Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards (WMELS) Domain III. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNICATION B. Speaking & Communicating B.EL.1 - Uses gestures and movements (nonverbal) to communicate B.EL.2 (a, b & c) Uses vocalizations and spoken language to communicate (includes language forms - syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) Wisconsin Common Core State Standards– English Language Arts (CCSS - ELA) Connections • Reading Standards, K-5 • Speaking and Listening Standards, K-5 • Language Standards, K-5 For more info: http://standards.dpi.wi.gov/stn_ela-tchingandlrng Vocabulary: Should we be concerned? Key variable in learning to read with comprehension! • • • • By age 3, working vocabulary: Children from high income families = 1,116 words Children in working-class families = 749 words Children in families living in poverty = 525 words • Observations of 55 kindergartens classrooms: found limited instruction in vocabulary in most settings Hart, B. & Risley, T.R. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children, Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, MD., 1995, 2003 Research suggests … • Haphazard approaches to teaching vocabulary • Much vocabulary instruction provided in “teachable moments” during read alouds • Limited effort to reinforce the new vocabulary in context within the child’s day Neuman, S.B., & Wright, T.S. All About Words: Increasing Vocabulary in the Common Core Classroom, PreK-2, Teacher College Press, New York, NY, 2013 Vocabulary According to research, how many times does a child need to hear a word before he remembers it ? a. b. c. d. Less than 10 times 10-15 times 25-30 times 40-50 times (Neuman & Wright, 2013) The Word Gap “Generally, children come into school with vocabulary at one point and leave with vocabulary at the same point … We’re not teaching very many words, and we’re not teaching in a way that children will retain the words.” (Neuman & Wright, 2013) Research suggests … • Students exiting high school need 80,000 words in their vocabulary! • Be intentional in vocabulary word selection • Children can learn 500 new words per year • Word exposure, activities, read alouds, & “teachable moments” - good strategies but not enough to close the gap • In addition, provide explicit instruction followed by multiple opportunities to use the new words in a variety of settings Susan B. Neuman, presentation based on book, All About Words: Increasing Vocabulary in the Common Core Classroom, PreK – 2, Teachers College Press, New York, NY., 2013 Research suggests … • quantity of words heard is critical • Important to assess the amount of talking that occurs in care and education settings for young children to raise awareness of quality and quantity Hart & Risley, 2003 http://www.strategiesforchildren.org/eea/6research_summaries/05_MeaningfulDifferences.pdf Tools to assess your LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENT • Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) • Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) • Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation Toolkit (ELLCO) • Child/Home Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (CHELLO) Activity time! Early Learning Language Self-Assessment: Talking with Children A. Rate yourself (or your team) on each item of the tool using this scale: 4= Looking Good! 3= Doing Pretty Well 2= Needs Attention but Not Top Priority 1= Needs Attention NOW B. Review scores/set goals for improvement C. Identify evidence of progress/achievement Clip #3 – Evidence-based Practices (17 minutes) Language and Literacy: Preparing our Children for 3rd Grade Literacy Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Ph.D. 27 General vocabulary building strategies • NARRATE children’s activities (describe what the child is doing while s/he is doing it) • Repeat & Expand on child’s language (Child: “Dog.” Adult: “Yes, it is a dog. He is a big, red dog.”) • Use new words that connect to words the child already knows/uses. (Child: “The towel is soaking up the water.” Adult: “Yes, it is soaking up the water. Another word that means the same thing is ‘absorb’; the towel is absorbing the water.”) Storytelling • An oral tradition in many cultures • Enhances language and literacy curriculum • Supports vocabulary growth, listening, comprehension, an other early literacy components • Another method of differentiating instruction Evidence-based principles for vocabulary instruction Effective vocabulary instruction … • • • • • is explicit requires careful selection of vocabulary targets is intentionally designed is delivered with repeated exposure and practice is linked to assessment Spencer, E.J., Goldstein, H., & Kaminski, R. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children, Young Exceptional Children, DEC, vol. 15, No. 1, March 2012 Embedded vocabulary instruction #1 – select words to teach • Review story book • Consider “Tiered” words • Choose Tier 2 words for universal instruction, based on frequency/ease of definition/ significance to story/illustrations • May choose Tier 1 words for some children (with delays/disabilities or learning English) • Select Tier 3 words for those children who are ready for additional challenges (Spencer, Goldstein, & Kaminski, 2012) Decision-making model Process for selecting vocabulary words to teach: • Review curriculum materials/activities • Consider unit of study – thematic/ categorical/project-related words • Books used in theme/project Christ, T. & Wang, X.C. Supporting Preschooler’s Vocabulary Learning Using a Decision-making Model to Select Appropriate Words and Methods, Young Children, National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC., vol. 67, no. 2, March 2012 Decision-making model (Christ & Wang, 2012) Step #1 Identify all words that are likely to be new to the children Step #2 Select words you will teach based on: • do the children need to know this word in order to understand the story/topic? • will this word be useful in conversations? • does this word lend itself to use across activities and contexts? • does this word relate to other words the children are currently learning? Decision-making model (Christ & Wang, 2012) Step #3 Decide on methods/strategies to intentionally teach the words • Model how to use contextual cues (illustrations, etc.) • Directly teach new words – “a cave is a hole in the mountain” • Ask comprehension questions • Embed opportunities to use the new words in context Additional resource: http://www.earlychildhoodwebinars.com/prese ntations/improving-vocabulary-in-the-age-ofcommon-core-standards-guidance-for-earlychildhood-educators-by-susan-b-neuman/ Highly recommended ! Build Language through Play a) Provide dramatic play area - children can take on new roles; adults can introduce and use new vocabulary b) Model conversational language in dramatic play roles c) Provide materials to experiment with writing d) Play games that support language experiences e) SCAFFOLD learning by asking questions or providing prompts Double Focus! Highly effective teachers and caregivers… provide daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for the children they serve, and … engage families in providing daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for their own children! Winton, P.J., McCollum, J.A., & Catlett, C. Practical Approaches to Early Childhood Professional Development: Evidence, Strategies, & Resources. Zero to Three, Washington, DC., 2008 Wrap-up • Share a new concept or specific strategy you learned that you will use. • What questions do you still have about teaching early literacy?