ausvels science primary

Report
AusVELS
Unpacking Primary Years
Science
Maria James
8 August 2013
1
Getting started
What is
your most
‘burning’
question?
2
Education research: content
Research by Nuthall shows half (and
perhaps more) of all material taught in
any class is already known by
the students.
Nuthall (2005), The cultural myths and realities of classroom teaching and learning: a personal
journey?, in Teachers College Record, 107 (5), 902-903.
3
Assessment
“ … the fundamental purpose of assessment
is to establish where learners are in their
learning at the time of assessment.”
Masters G (2013), ‘Reforming Educational Assessment: Imperatives, principles
and challenges’, Australian Education Review, 5-6
4
Prior knowledge
How familiar are you with AusVELS Science?
A
B
C
D
E
Wouldn’t know where to find it
Looked at it quickly just before this session
Have spent some time reading it
Have spent some time working with it
Have spent significant time working with it
5
Science research: The ROSE Project
The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) project surveyed students from many
countries.
Findings include:
• The more developed a country, the less positive the view of science by students
• In the UK, 14-to 15-year-old students were surveyed:
– 11% agreed with ‘I like school science better than other subjects’
– 8% agreed with ‘I would like to become a scientist’
• These figures are consistent with studies in Australia (for example, PISA results)
Sjoberg S & Schreiner C (2005), How do learners in different countries relate to science and technology?,
Asia Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 6 (2), 1-17.
6
A research base for Australian Curriculum: Science
The framing paper for the Australian Curriculum:
Science draws on two particular research reports
which synthesise national and international research
on school science education:
• Australian School Science Education National
Action Plan 2008-2012 (Goodrum & Rennie, 2007)
• Re-imagining Science Education: Engaging
students in science for Australia’s future (Tytler,
2007)
7
Research: Fensham
A study of Beijing’s heads of the top 11 science
research institutions to determine desirable qualities
for their scientists, beyond knowledge, listed the
following:
Rank
Desired quality
Most important
Creativity
Very important
Personal interest in science; perseverance; willingness
and desire to inquire
Important
Ability to communicate; social concern; team spirit
Fensham, P. (2004). Engagement with science: An international issue that goes
beyond knowledge. Paper presented at the SMEC Conference.
8
Urban legends and investigable questions
‘Science is a dynamic, forward-looking, collaborative
human endeavour arising from our curiosity and interest.’
From the Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Science paper, May 2009.
Hmm… an
inquiry
approach!
• Can the unaided human
voice shatter glass?
• Can diving underwater
protect a person from
gunfire?
• Is grass still green at night?
Sport … music …
updating Facebook
profiles … latest diet
fads … catching up
with friends at the
weekend … pets …
Science?
9
Where can I find AusVELS?
VCAA websites
Curriculum website:
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/
Resources and support website:
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Pages/foundation1
0/curriculum/index.aspx
10
Age-relevant curriculum
Curriculum focus
• Foundation – Level 2: awareness of self and the local
world
• Level 3 – Level 6: recognising questions that can be
investigated scientifically and investigating them
• Level 7 – Level 10: explaining phenomena involving
science and its applications.
11
Overarching ideas
Six overarching ideas underpin the
development of AusVELS Science
•
•
•
•
•
•
Patterns, order and organisation
Form and function
Stability and change
Scale and measurement
Matter and energy
Systems
12
Strands and sub-strands in AusVELS Science
strands
Science
understanding
Biological sciences
Science as a
human
endeavour
Nature and
development of
science
sub-strands
Chemical sciences
Earth and space
sciences
Physical sciences
Science inquiry
skills
Questioning and
predicting
Planning and
conducting
Use and influence
of science
Processing and
analysing data and
information
Evaluating
Communicating
13
AusVELS Science Level 1: Screen shot
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=1
14
The Science as a Human Endeavour strand
Two sub-strands
Nature and development of science
• How do scientific ideas develop?
Use and influence of science
• How is science used in work and leisure?
• How do science and technology affect our
environment and our lives?
• What is the scope of science-related careers?
15
Revised standards: Foundation
Foundation
• By the end of the Foundation level, students describe
the properties and behaviour of familiar objects. They
suggest how the environment affects them and other
living things.
• Students share and record observations of familiar
objects and events.
16
Revised standards: Level 1 and 2
Level 1 and 2
• By the end of Level 2, students describe the effects of interacting
with materials and objects. They identify and describe a range of
habitats and the different uses of materials and resources. They
describe changes to objects, materials, living things and things in
their local environment. They describe examples of how people
use science in their daily lives.
• Students pose questions about everyday phenomena and predict
outcomes of investigations. They use informal measurements to
make and compare observations. They follow instructions to
record, sort and represent their observations and communicate
their ideas to others.
17
Revised standards: Level 3 and 4
Level 3 and 4:
Science Understanding (SU) and Science as a Human Endeavour (SHE)
By the end of Level 4, students explain the effects of Earth’s rotation on its axis.
They distinguish between temperature and heat and use examples to illustrate
how heat is produced and transferred. They explain how heat is involved in
changes of state between solid and liquid. They link the observable properties of
materials to their use. They discuss how natural and human processes cause
changes to Earth’s surface. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe
interactions between objects. They describe structural features common to living
things and describe relationships that assist the survival of living things. They
explain how the key stages in the life cycle of a plant or animal relate to growth
and species survival. They describe how they use science investigations to identify
patterns and respond to questions. They describe situations where science
understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.
18
Revised standards: Level 3 and 4
Level 3 and 4: Science Inquiry Skills (SIS)
Students follow instructions to identify questions that they can investigate
about familiar contexts and predict likely outcomes from these investigations.
They discuss ways to conduct investigations and suggest why their methods
were fair or not. They safely use equipment to make and record formal
measurements and observations. They use provided tables and simple
column graphs to organise and identify patterns in data. Students suggest
explanations for observations and compare their findings with their
predictions. They use diagrams and complete simple reports to communicate
their methods and findings.
19
Revised standards: Level 5 and 6
Level 5 and 6: SU and SHE
By the end of Level 6, students compare the properties and behaviours of solids, liquids
and gases. They compare observable changes to materials and classify these changes as
reversible or irreversible. They explain everyday phenomena associated with the
absorption, reflection, refraction and dispersion of light. They compare different ways in
which energy can be transformed from one form to another to generate electricity and
evaluate their suitability for particular purposes. They construct electrical circuits and
distinguish between open and closed circuits. They explain how natural events cause
rapid change to Earth’s surface and describe the key features of our solar system. They
analyse how structural and behavioural adaptations of living things enhance their
survival, and predict and describe the effect of environmental changes on individual living
things. Students explain how scientific knowledge develops from many people’s
contributions and how scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions affect
peoples’ lives.
20
Revised standards: Level 5 and 6
Level 5 and 6: SIS
Students follow procedures to develop questions that they can investigate and
design investigations into simple cause-and-effect relationships. When planning
experimental methods, they identify variables to be changed and measured in
fair tests. They make predictions based on general rules or previous
experiences. They identify and manage potential safety risks. They make and
record accurate observations as tables, diagrams or descriptions. They organise
data into tables and graphs to identify and analyse patterns and relationships.
They suggest where improvements to their experimental methods or research
could improve the quality of their data. They refer to data when they report
findings and communicate their ideas, methods and findings using a range of text
types.
21
Inquiry-based curriculum
Level F:
explore and
make
observations
Level 1-2:
pose questions
and make
predictions
… participate in
different types of
guided
investigations to
explore and
answer questions
The Australian Curriculum: Science emphasises inquiry-based
teaching and learning
Teacher driven
inquiry
Semi structured
inquiry
Student driven
inquiry
Opportunities for student-led open inquiry should be provided
within each phase of schooling
Level 3-4:
With guidance, identify questions
in familiar contexts that can be
investigated scientifically …
suggest ways to plan and conduct
investigations to find answers to
questions
Level 5-6:
With guidance, select
appropriate investigation
methods to answer questions
or solve problems … decide
which variable should be
changed and measured in fair
tests
22
Scenarios for inquiry: Stinking fish
Hundreds of stinking dead fish dumped at
Portarlington jetty have angered local
fishermen.
Surfcoast Times, 2 September 2011
Newspaper articles can be edited so that
students may be encouraged to generate
questions/propose possible
explanations/suggest methods of inquiry
which involve collection of primary and
secondary data/ differentiate between
investigable and non-investigable
questions.
23
Planning assessment: a sunscreen pill
British scientists, inspired
by samples of coral taken
from the Great Barrier
Reef, hope to produce a
sunscreen in a pill that
gives weeks of protection
after working out how
coral shields itself from the
harmful ultraviolet rays in
sunshine. The pill could be
tested on people in 5
years.
24
Planning curriculum using a current issue: Cycling
Victoria is the nation’s top
bicycle state, with almost
1.1 million people riding
their bikes each week
The Age, 1 September 2011
About
40% of the
population has
ridden a bike in
the past year
In Victoria, 23% of
males and 16% of
females ride in a
typical week
25
Cycling – Planning using SHE: sub-strand 1
Level
F
Sub-strand: nature and development of science
Science involves exploring and observing the world using the senses
1-2
Science involves asking questions about, and describing changes in, objects and
events
3-4
Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships
5-6
•
•
Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to
develop explanations of events and phenomena
Important contributions to the advancement of science have been made by
people from a range of cultures
26
Cycling – Planning using SHE: sub-strand 2
Level
F
Sub-strand: use and influence of science
Not applicable at this Level
1-2
People use science in their daily lives, including when caring for the
environment and living things
3-4
Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions
5-6
• Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve
problems that directly affect peoples’ lives
• Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community
decisions
27
Cycling – Links to the Science Understanding strand
Level
Science understanding
F
The way objects move depends on a variety of factors, including their size and shape
1
•
•
2
A push or a pull affects how an object moves or changes shape
3
•
•
Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another
Living things can be …distinguished from non-living things
4
•
Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; these
properties can influence their use
Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact …
•
Everyday materials can be physically changed in a variety of ways
Light and sound are produced by a range of sources and can be sensed
5
Light from a source forms shadows and can be absorbed, reflected and refracted
6
•
•
Changes to materials can be reversible … or irreversible, such as … rusting
Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring and transforming electricity
28
Cycling – Links to the Science Inquiry Skills strand
Level Science inquiry Skills
F
•
•
use methods such as drawing to represent ideas
share observations and ideas
1-2
•
•
•
respond to and pose questions, and make predictions….
use informal measurements in the collection and recording of observations
participate in different types of guided investigations…
3-4
•
•
•
compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings
reflect on the investigation, including whether a test was fair or not
represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams,
physical representations and simple reports
5-6
•
with guidance, select appropriate investigation methods to answer questions or solve
problems
suggest improvements to the methods used to investigate a question or solve a problem
•
29
Linking science to literacy and numeracy
What
does the
community
think?
What do
I think?
Risks?
Bellarine, Great Ocean Road off-limits
Wind farms banned
The Bellarine Peninsula and Great Ocean Road
have been made no-go zones for wind farms under
extensive new planning rules.
In addition, developments will be blocked if they
are within 5km of a major regional centre or within
2km of an existing dwelling unless the owner gives
written consent.
The Surfcoast Times, 2 September 2011
How can I
decide
what to
do?
Benefits?
Who
should
decide?
30
Planning assessment: ‘wicked problems’
• Socio-scientific investigations involve a complexity (and hence the term
‘wicked problem’) which often make them difficult to utilise in the classroom.
However, if students are to be taught how evidence is developed and used in
science in authentic settings, this issue requires addressing.
• A solution: case studies may provide data from real situations, or simulated,
to allow students to explore questions that might be posed, or which they
generate themselves, through representations of the data and analysis.
Example:
A data bank was made electronically available to students from an Antarctic
expedition concerning body weight, breeding patterns and mortality of
mutton birds. Students could then pose questions, construct hypotheses,
make predictions and construct data sets to explore these.
Gott R, Duggan S & Roberts R (2000), The science investigation workshop (CD), Durham: University of Durham.
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Contacts
Maria James
Curriculum Manager, Science
Email: [email protected]
Telephone: 9032 1722
AusVELS Unit
Email: [email protected]
32

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