ISIS, FETS and ASTeC

Report
ISIS, FETS and ASTeC
David Findlay
Head, Accelerator Division
ISIS Department
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory / STFC
ASTeC 10 Years On, Thursday 13 October 2011
ASTeC, DL
Electron-proton
dipole
ISIS, FETS,
ASTeC (IBG),RAL
Electric field at 1 m: ~10 GV/m
Dipole moment
~1 C.m
~1030 Debye units
Overview of talk
ISIS
Science programme
Accelerator R&D
Upgrades
Front End Test Stand
Rôle of ASTeC
3
But first — protons in the UK
At AERE1/Harwell/NIRNS2/RHEL/RAL:
Harwell synchrocyclotron (1949, 165 MeV, 1 µA)
PLA (Proton Linear Accelerator, 1959–1969)
50 MeV, 3-tank — originally was to be 600 MeV
Harwell ~7 MV tandem accelerator
Harwell VEC (Variable Energy Cyclotron, 1965–1980s)
Nimrod, 7 GeV proton synchrotron (1964–1978)
ISIS, 800 MeV proton synchrotron (1984– )
1 Atomic Energy Research Establishment (1946)
2 National Institute for Research in Nuclear Science (1957)
4
Harwell
tandem
PLA —
Proton
Linear
Accelerator
Aimed down runway
Never
built
PLA tank going
into Building R12
at RAL
PLA tank in R5.1 — as part of new injector for Nimrod
Remedial work on
other tanks for new
injector for Nimrod
PLA tank in R5.1 — as part of injector for ISIS
Cockcroft at ground-breaking ceremony for Nimrod
Construction of Nimrod synchrotron hall
4.6 MVA alternator (+ 5100 HP motor + 24 ton flywheel) × 2
First beam from Nimrod
ISIS
World’s most productive spallation neutron source
(if no longer highest beam power)
Flagship STFC facility [Sci. Tech. Facilities Council]
Driven by UK’s high-power proton accelerators
UK has largest national neutron user community of
any country
Accelerator physics at ISIS necessary for continuing
operations
— and also for enabling entire programmes on
materials R&D
Need to plan for upgrades
17
ISIS
Fundamental purpose — to investigate structure and
dynamics of molecular matter
Neutron sources complement light sources
Neutrons: ~0.1 eV → ~1Å
Structure
Paracetamol
Atomic motions
18
Impact of ISIS science
Global challenges
ISIS
Energy

Living with environmental change

Global threats to security

Ageing: Life-long health and wellbeing

Digital economy

Nanoscience: through engineering to application

ISIS from air
RFQ: 665 keV H–, 4-rod, 202 MHz
Linac: 70 MeV H–, 25 mA, 202 MHz, 200 µs, 50 pps
Synchrotron: 800 MeV proton, 50 Hz
5 µC each acceleration cycle
Dual harmonic RF system [Chris Prior]
Targets:
2 × W (Ta coated)
Protons: 2 × ~100 ns pulses, ~300 ns apart
Moderators: TS-1: 2 × H2O, 1 × liq. CH4, 1 × liq. H2
TS-2: 1 × liq. H2 / solid CH4, 1 × solid CH4
Instruments: TS-1: 20
~340 staff
TS-2: 7 (+ 4 more now funded)
22
–35 kV H– ion source
665 keV 4-rod 202 MHz RFQ
70 MeV 202 MHz 4-tank H– linac
1.3–3.1 + 2.6–6.2 MHz 70–800 MeV proton synchrotron
Superperiods 9, 0 and 1 of 800 MeV synchrotron
Protons to TS-2
Protons to TS-1
EPB1 and EPB2 to TS-1 and TS-2 above synchrotron
ISIS TS-1 experimental hall, 20 instruments
ISIS TS-2 experimental hall, 7 instruments + 4 under way
TS-1 tungsten target,
plates
TS-2 tungsten target, solid cylinder
ISIS Upgrades
0) Linac and TS-1 refurbishment
1) Linac upgrade, ~0.5 MW on TS-1
2) ~3 GeV booster synchrotron: MW target
3) 800 MeV direct injection: 2–5 MW target
4) Upgrade 3) + long pulse mode option
ISIS MW Upgrade Scenarios
1) Replace 70 MeV ISIS
linac by new ~180 MeV
linac (~0.5 MW)
2) ~3 GeV RCS fed by
bucket-to-bucket transfer
from ISIS 800 MeV
synchrotron (1MW,
perhaps more)
3) Charge-exchange
injection from 800 MeV
linac (2 – 5 MW)
ASTeC staff vital to success
Common proton driver for neutron source and neutrino factory
• Based on MW ISIS upgrade
with 800 MeV Linac and 3.2
GeV RCS
• Assumes a sharing of the beam
power at 3.2 GeV between the
two facilities
• Requires additional RCS machine in
order to meet the power and energy
needs of the Neutrino Factory
• Both facilities can have the
same ion source, RFQ, chopper,
linac, H− injection, accumulation
and acceleration to 3.2 GeV
NF on Harwell Oxford site
muon
FFAG
decay ring to Norsaq
155 m below ground
RLA 2
RLA 1
muon linac
cooling
phase rotation
bunching
• Extensive geological
survey data available,
but needs work to
interpret implications
for deep excavation and
ground water activation
• UKAEA land now
not to be
decommissioned
until at least 2040
(unless we pay
for it!)
decay ring to INO
440 m below ground
FETS — Front End Test Stand
Actually the second front end test stand at RAL
First test stand was built to test RFQ to replace ISIS
Cockcroft-Walton
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ISIS 665 kV Cockcroft-Walton (1984–2004)
665 keV 4-rod
202 MHz RFQ
RFQ test stand
ion source,
LEBT, RFQ,
diagnostics
Front End Test Stand (FETS)
Key technology demonstrator for next generation of
high power pulsed proton accelerators
ISIS upgrades
Neutrino factories
Future spallation neutron sources
Accelerator-driven systems
Waste transmutation
...
Only dedicated high-power proton accelerator
hardware R&D project in the UK
40
Key components of FETS
High-intensity, high-duty factor, H– ion source
(60 mA, 2 ms, 50 pps)
Magnetic low energy beam transport (LEBT)
324 MHz 4-vane RFQ
Medium energy beam transport (MEBT)
Very high speed beam chopper
Comprehensive beam diagnostics
Collaboration — ISIS, ASTeC, Imperial College, Warwick
University, ESS Bilbao consortium, Royal Holloway,
[Huddersfield, UCL]
41
In R8 at RAL
Ion source and LEBT optimisation
60 mA H–
beam current
demonstrated
Low measured
emittance at
high current in
the FETS LEBT
43
RFQ design + manufacture
RFQ cold
model
Integrated
electromagnetic,
thermal, fluid flow and
mechanical design
Weld test
models under
investigation at
Imperial
44
Beam chopper
Essential for all high-power proton accelerators
with rings
FETS chopper
Two-stage for wide-band functionality
Basis for ESS design
45
4 metres
46
Helical prototype
Planar prototype
Re-bunching cavities
47
Beam diagnostics
Already in use
Current transformers
Faraday cup
Slit-and-cup scanners for
time-resolved 2D
emittance
Scintillators for beam profiles
Pepper-pot for 4D phase
space
Being developed
Laser photo-detachment
(“laser wire”)
48
At present
Cutting metal for RFQ
Increasing laser power for laser wire
Continuing ion source development
…
In future
Commission RFQ
Demonstrate high-quality beam chopping
Spin out hands-on accelerator expertise
…
49
ASTeC
Re-packaging of long-held national lab. skills
— larger package than in the past
Skills  NINA, SRS, Nimrod, ISIS, Diamond, ...
“ASTeC” skills enabled / continue to enable
Nimrod  ISIS
ESS designs (1990s, early 2000s)
ISIS second harmonic RF upgrade
TS-2
FETS
ISIS Accel. Theory Group  ASTeC Intense Beams
Group (IBG) — IBG still in ISIS R2 building
50
ASTeC — has enabled ISIS
— is enabling FETS
— will enable ISIS upgrades
Happy birthday!
And many happy returns!
51

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