Lifelong Learning Policies and Practices

Report
Lifelong Learning
Policies and Practices
Presented by:
Phyllis Cummins
Research Fellow, Scripps Gerontology Center
Amy Sherman
Associate Vice President, Policy and Strategic Alliances, CAEL
Presentation Overview
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Description of lifelong learning
Why lifelong learning is important in the U.S.
Comparison of U.S. to OECD countries
Lifelong learning strategies in other countries
Financing lifelong learning
Concluding remarks
“In the global economy, the
benchmark for educational success is
no longer merely improvement by
local or national standards, but the
best performing education systems
internationally.”
Source: Schleicher, 2013, p. 29
Key Characteristics of Lifelong
Learning
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Cradle to grave
Takes place in different settings
Can be formal, non-formal and informal
Wide participation
Varying degrees of public and private
funding
Lifelong Learning
Vocational
Training
To Do
Formal
Education
To
Know
Learning
Learning as
Personal
Growth
To Be
Impact
Wellbeing
Economic
and Social
Outcomes
of Learning
To Live
Together
Learning for
Social
Cohesion
Adapted from Delors, J. (1996);
Hoskins, Cartwright, & Schoof (2010)
Why is Lifelong Learning
Important in the U.S.?
Source: Howden & Meyer (2011)
How Does the U.S. Rank in
Lifelong Learning
Indicators?
A Systematic Assessment of Lifelong Learning
First Tier
Second Tier
Third Tier
Fourth Tier
Denmark
Canada
Australia
Ireland
Finland
Czech
Republic
Switzerland
Hungary
Portugal
Germany
United
Kingdom
Netherlands
United States
Norway
Sweden
New Zealand
Poland
How does the U.S. Compare
to OECD Countries?
Source: OECD.StatExtracts (2011)
Comparisons of Average Hours per Participant in
Non-Formal Education for Ages 45 - 54, 2007
Lifelong Learning Strategies in other
Countries
European Union (EU)
• Several initiatives, including the Lisbon Strategy
and the Bologna Process
• Encourage delayed retirement and participation in
lifelong learning
• Skill investments in the context of economic
growth
• Individual countries are aligning themselves with
the Bologna Process
• Shared responsibility for funding: government,
employers, and individuals
Nordic Countries
• High participation in lifelong learning, high labor force
participation, low inequality
• Target low-skilled workers
• Denmark
– Recognition of prior learning
– Embed lifelong learning in general education system, the
labor market and in society as a whole
• Sweden
– Funded by the government through high taxes
– Second chance model
Sources: European Association for the Education of Adults (2011); Thunborg & Bron
(2012).
Germany
• Federal government plays a minor role in lifelong
education policy – responsibility rests with the states
• Encourage participation in formal, non-formal, and
informal learning during all phases of life
• Four main components:
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Recognition of prior learning
Widening of access routes
Flexible learning opportunities
Support systems
Source: Wolter (2012).
Strategies to Finance Lifelong Learning
• Learning entitlements provided by
governments
• Drawing rights models
• Tax levies on employers
• Employer sponsored non-formal and informal
training
• Tuition refund programs
• Incumbent worker training programs
Strategies to Finance Lifelong Learning
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Tax credits and deductions
Vouchers and individual loans
Training leave programs
Government supported programs for lowincome
• Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs)
Phyllis Cummins
Scripps Gerontology Center
Miami University (of Ohio)
[email protected]
References
Council for Adult & Experiential Learning. (2007). Changing lives through lifelong learning accounts. Retrieved from
http://www.cael.org/pdfs/90_caellilaparticipantprofiles2007
Council for Adult & Experiential Learning. (2012). Helping workers save successfully for education and training.
Retrieved from http://www.cael.org/pdfs/2012_LiLAs_highlights-e-distro
Delors, J. (1996). Learning: The treasure within. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from
www.unesco.org/delors/delors_e.pdf
European Association for the Education of Adults (2011). Country report on adult education in Denmark. Retrieved
August 8, 2013 from http://www.eaea.org/country/denmark
Gara, N. (2012). Lifelong learning as a reference framework for technical and further education. In D. N. Aspin, J.
Chapman, K. Evans, & R. Bagnall (Eds.), Second international handbook of lifelong learning (Vol. 26, pp. 557579). New York, NY: Springer.
Hollenbeck, K. (2008). Is there a role for public support of incumbent worker on-the-job training? (Staff Working
Paper No. 08-138). Retrieved February 10, 2013 from W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
website: http://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1155&context=up_workingpapers
Hoskins, B., Cartwright, F., & Schoof, U. (2010). The ELLI index Europe 2010: ELLI European lifelong learning
indicators: Making lifelong learning tangible! Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Stiftung. Retrieved from
http://www.icde.org/European+ELLI+Index+2010.b7C_wlDMWi.ips
Howden, L. M. & Meyer, J. A. (2011). Age and sex composition: 2010. Table 3. Population by Sex and Selected Age
Groups for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: 2010. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau.
Kasworm, C. E. (2012a). Adult higher education in the USA: Perplexing contradictions. In M. Slowey & H. G.
Schuetze (Eds.), Global perspectives on higher education and lifelong learners (e-book; pp. 173-192). London,
UK: Routledge
Kasworm, K. (2012b). US adult higher education: One context of lifelong learning. International Journal of
Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 5(1), 1-19.
References
Lerman, R. I., McKernan, S-M., & Riegg, S. (2004). The scope of employer-provided training in the United States:
Who, what, where, and how much? In C. J. O'Leary, R. A. Straits, & S. A. Wandner (Eds.), Job training policy in
the United States (pp. 211-244). Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute.
OECD. (2001). Education policy analysis. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
OECD. (2005). Promoting adult learning. Paris.
OECD. (2011). StatExtracts. Retrieved September 2, 2013 from
http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=LMPEXP
OECD. (2012). Education at a glance 2012: OECD indicators.
Schleicher, A. (2013). Lessons for educators. OECD Observer, 294(Q1), 29-30.
Schuetze, H. G. (2007). Individual learning accounts and other models of financing lifelong learning. International
Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(1), 5-23. doi: 10.1080/02601370601151349
Thunborg, C. & Bron, A. (2012). Higher education and lifelong learning in Sweden. In M. Slowey & H. G. Schuetze
(Eds.), Global perspectives on higher education and lifelong learners (e-book; pp. 97-111). London:
Routledge.
Toossi, M. (2012). Labor force projections to 2020: A more slowly growing workforce. Monthly Labor Review,
135(1), 43-64. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/01/home.htm
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2007a, December). Table 10. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by educational attainment, age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino and Non-Hispanic ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2007b, December). Table 31: Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment,
age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
References
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009a, June). Table 10. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by educational attainment, age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino and Non-Hispanic ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009b, June). Table 31: Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, age,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012a, December). Table 10. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by educational attainment, age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino and Non-Hispanic ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012b, December). Table 10. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by educational attainment, age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino and Non-Hispanic ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013a). Civilian noninstitutional labor force by age group: 1970 – 2012. (Received
through personal communication with Mitra Toossi on July 3, 2013)
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013b, June). Table 10. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional
population by educational attainment, age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino and Non-Hispanic ethnicity.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013c, June). Table 31: Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, age,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
Wolter, A. (2012). From individual talent to institutional permeability: Changing policies for non-traditional access
routes in German higher education. In M. Slowey & H. G. Schuetze (Eds.), Global perspectives on higher
education and lifelong learners (e-book; pp. 34-59). London: Routledge.

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