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O2 Administration: Oxygen
Therapy and Pulse Oximetry
Gail M. Maier, PhD., R.N.
Associate Director
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical
Center
Learning Objectives
Describe
Identify
Demonstrate
Identify
At the end of this module, you
will know how to:
• abbreviations and diagnostic tests that are used to monitor the patient’s oxygen
levels.
• the indications for oxygen therapy.
• the proper technique for the following:
•Setting up a Venturi mask, low flow nasal cannula, and non-rebreather bag
•Obtaining the patient’s SpO2 with a pulse oximeter
• 2 low flow and 2 high flow oxygen delivery devices.
Describe
• the 4 hazards of oxygen therapy
Examine
• factors that affect the reading of a pulse oximeter.
O2 Therapy
Common O2 therapy abbreviations:
PaO2: Partial pressure of O2 in the blood
(Normal is 80 – 100 mmHg)

FiO2: Fraction of inspired O2
(Room air is 21% O2)

SaO2: Arterial O2 saturation
(Normal is 95-100%)

Indications for Oxygen Therapy
Treat
hypoxemia
Mild: PaO2
of 60-80 mm
Hg
Moderate:
PaO2 of 4060 mmHg
Decrease the work of breathing
Decrease myocardial demands
Severe:
PaO2 below
40 mmHg
Setting up the delivery device
Oxygen flow
meter: indicates
amount of
oxygen patient is
receiving
Oxygen
measured in
liters per minute
(LPM)
Oxygen connections
Christmas tree
Low Flow Oxygen Cannula
Low Flow Oxygen Mask and Catheters
Other Low Flow Delivery Options
•Mask can be used for those who are only mouth breathers
•Delivers higher amounts of oxygen
•Uncomfortable for most patients
•Nasal catheters deliver oxygen at the same rates as a cannula.
•Uncomfortable for the patient
High Flow Oxygen Cannula
High Flow Venturi (Venti) Mask
Hazards of Oxygen Therapy
Oxygen toxicity
• Alveolar damage
can occur
• Provide only the
level of O2 patient
requires
Denitrogenation
absorption
atelectasis
• Absence of nitrogen
reduces alveoli’s
ability to expand
Hazards of Oxygen Therapy
O2 induced
hypoventilation
• Seem primarily in patients
with COPD who have a
hypoxic drive to breathe
• Oxygen takes away
stimulus to breathe
Fire hazard
Oxygen Tanks



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Oxygen is stored at a high
pressure in green tanks.
Oxygen tanks are used for
transporting patients on oxygen
and when a wall hook-up isn’t
available.
Before using, check to make
sure the PSI is above 300 PSI. If
not, get a new tank.
Do not lean tanks against the
wall or roll them on the ground.
This is a fire hazard. Transport
them like this.
Monitoring oxygenation – Pulse Oximetry



Pulse oximeter: noninvasive monitor
Provides estimate of
arterial blood
oxyhemoglobin
saturation levels
SpO2 = oxygen
saturation levels
Procedure for Pulse Oximeter Use




Pulse oximeter
readings taken with
vital signs
Place device snugly
on the finger
Earlobes or toe can
be used
Record the oxygen
saturation shown on
the monitor
How does a Pulse Oximeter work?
Two different
wavelengths
of light are
emitted
Light passes
through the
finger and
read by the
oximeter
Factors affecting the reading
Checking for Accuracy
Compare the SpO2 on
the pulse oximeter with
the patient’s arterial
blood levels (if available)
Match the pulse rate on
the oximeter with the
patient’s actual pulse
rate
SpO2 and PaO2
Below is a chart comparing the SpO2 reading to what the
likely PaO2 is.
SpO2
PaO2
90%
60 mmHg
80%
50 mm Hg
70%
40 mm Hg
Summary
Oxygen is essential
to life so it is
important that you
understand what to
look for that indicates
the patient may be
experiencing
difficulties
Oxygen therapy is a
common type of
therapy ordered for
the patients. You
will be responsible
for helping set the
oxygen devices up
Thank you for completing this module


If you have any questions,
please let me know.
[email protected]
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