7b.1 DeicerManagemen.. - Trb

Report
SESSION: DEICER MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
June 18, 2014, 2:30pm. Track B
OVERVIEW OF CHAPTER 8, WINTER OPERATIONS AND SALT, SAND, AND CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT OF THE NCHRP
REPORT 25-25(04)
Xianming Shi, Montana State University
EVALUATION OF SALT-RICH BIOCHAR AS A ROADWAY DE-ICING AGENT IN SUPPORT OF THE RECYCLING OF
APPLIED ROAD SALTS THROUGH PHYTOREMEDIATION AND BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION
Andy Alden, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI)
SALT MANAGEMENT RESEARCH IN VIRGINIA
Jimmy White, Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation & Research
SESSION: DEICER MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS
Overview of Chapter 8, Winter Operations and Salt, Sand, and Chemical Management of the NCHRP Report 25-25(04
Xianming Shi, Montana State University
The Revised Chapter 8 presents information on recommended practices and strategic planning for reduced salt usage, highlights
innovative DOT practices and programs that achieved reductions or improved environmental outcomes. Specific topics covered
include:
• Basic information on the most commonly used snow and ice control materials, their impacts on the environment, and public
concerns on the use of these products.
• Strategic planning and stewardship practices that can be used to reduce snow and ice material usage, such as anti-icing, utilizing
available pavement and weather information, etc.
• Precision application methods and material distribution systems.
• The importance of record keeping and monitoring, management at winter operations facilities, and appropriate training of winter
maintenance personnel.
This work also provides research recommendations to address knowledge gaps or areas with limited or little research on the topics
discussed in Revised Chapter 8.
Research Interests
1. Durability of civil infrastructure: understanding, preventing or mitigating the impact of service environment on metals, concrete, asphalt and structures (e.g.,
corrosion monitoring system, high performance coatings, preservation and maintenance techniques for pavements, and rehabilitation techniques for bridge
decks).
2. Environmental sustainability: with a focus on the use of nanotechnology, green technology, and beneficial microorganisms for: environmentally friendly
concrete, advanced cementitious materials, eco-friendly asphalt, green buildings, and environmental preservation
3. Sustainable transportation systems engineering, especially products, technologies, and systems to facilitate environmentally responsible best practices in
road weather management, snow and ice control, dust suppression, and other maintenance activities.
4. New energy technologies: microbial fuel cells, energy harvesting, advanced functional materials, etc.
Minimizing the Environmental
Footprint of Winter Highway
Operations
Xianming Shi, PhD, PE, Research Professor
A PRESENTATION AT 2014 TRB COMMITTEE ADC60
SUSTAINABLE & RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE WORKSHOP
Revised Chapter 8,
Winter Operations and Salt, Sand
& Chemical Management,
of the Final Report NCHRP 25-25(04)
Environmental Stewardship Practices,
Procedures, and Policies for Highway
Construction and Maintenance
My coauthors:
Laura Fay, Laura Fay, Michelle Akin,
David Veneziano
Supplemented by:
NCHRP Synthesis 449,
Strategies to Mitigate the Impacts
of Chloride Roadway Deicers on
the Natural Environment
My coauthors:
Laura Fay, Jiang Huang
Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Impacts of Winter Highway Operations
Reducing Sand Usage
Strategic Planning to Reduce Salt Usage
Proactive Stewardship Practices
Precision Application
Monitoring & Keeping Records
WM Facility Management
Training
Concluding Remarks
Photo courtesy of GNP.
1. Benefits of Winter Highway
Operations
• Fewer accidents, improved mobility, reduced
travel costs, reduced fuel use
• Sustained economic productivity, continued
emergency services, …
1a. WM in the U.S.
• > 70% roads, 70% population
• Hwys: 2.3 $bln/yr + 5 $bln/yr
MnDOT Case Study:
• (4,600 crashes)= 29% ↓
• $10.9M in travel time savings
• $48.4M in user fuel savings
• Total $227M saved, b/c of 6.2
• Intangible benefits
Ye, Z., Veneziano, D., Shi, X. Transportation Research Record, 2013, 2329: 17.
Ye, Z., ..., Shi, X. Transportation Research Record, 2014, in press.
Fay, L., Veneziano, D., Ye, Z., Williams, D., Shi. X. Transportation Research
Record 2010, 2169: 174.
1b. Emerging Challenges
Shi, X. Journal of Public Works & Infrastructure 2010, 2(4): 318.
1c. Impacts of Salt & Other Deicers
www.modot.org
Photo courtesy of M. Mills
www.witnerservices.net
www.miissoulanews.bigskypress.com
www.clf.org
www.syracuse.com
www.ci.bellevue.wa.us
1d. Impacts of Salt & Other Deicers
(cont’d)
Sustainability = economic growth + social
progress + ecological balance
Fay, L., Shi, X. ASCE Journal of Cold Regions Engineering 2011, 25(3): 89.
Shi, X., et al. Cold Regions Sci. Eng. 2013, 86: 36; Corrosion Reviews 2010,
28(3-4): 105. Corrosion Reviews 2009, 27(1-2): 23. Materials & Structures
2010, 43(7): 933. Construction & Building Materials 2011, 25(2): 957.ASCE
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2012, 24(7): 805.
Pan, T., He, X., Shi, X. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving
Technologists (AAPT) 2008, 77: 773.
Fay, L., Shi, X. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 2012, 223: 2751.
2. Reducing Sand Usage &
Managing Traction Materials
• More materials, lower LOS
• Pre-wetting
– Liquid product
– Hot water
•
•
•
•
Heating sand
Using other materials
Reduce bounce/scatter
Apply in appropriate locations
– Low speed roads, hills, curves, intersections
3. Strategic Planning for
Reduced Salt Usage
3a. Salt Management Plans
– A statement of policies & objectives
• Identifies: road use, salt vulnerable areas,
storage sites, snow disposal sites, training, …
– Documentation
– Proposed approaches
– Training & Management Review
3b. Iowa DOT Salt Model
• Allocates salt to garages based on weather
conditions & policy usage requirements.
• Creates a salt budget for each garage
Garage Salt Use Summary
Through 4/15/2012
Scale:
78%
CC
100%
0
200%
D1
551602
551604
551605
551607
551608
551609
551611
551612
551613
551614
551802
551803
551804
551806
551807
551808
551809
Garage
Ames
Marshalltown
Tama
Grundy Center
Iowa Falls
Williams
Fort Dodge
Gowrie
Jefferson
Boone
Malcom
Grinnell
Newton
Altoona
Des Moines North
Grimes
Carlisle
Statewide Salt Use vs. Target
Annette Dunn
Iowa DOT
< 90%
Allocation
(Tons)
Salt Used
(Tons)
Salt Target
(Tons)
3,057
1,871
1,315
1,714
1,796
2,179
1,573
840
1,005
1,263
1,185
1,106
2,370
1,261
2,778
3,750
1,603
1,163.4
829.6
717.8
459.8
512.4
726.3
558.3
156.0
459.3
688.2
628.4
488.5
921.3
542.6
972.4
1,264.8
542.7
1,710.4
1,081.7
642.5
689.1
820.6
1,133.7
771.6
449.4
488.1
573.5
674.4
568.9
1,045.9
410.9
1,012.0
1,636.0
429.6
90% - 100%
% Target
Used
68.0%
76.7%
111.7%
66.7%
62.5%
64.1%
72.4%
34.7%
94.1%
120.0%
93.2%
85.9%
88.1%
132.0%
96.1%
77.3%
126.3%
Payperiod 13 & 14
Over 100%
% Allocation
Used
38.1%
44.3%
54.6%
26.8%
28.5%
33.3%
35.5%
18.6%
45.7%
54.5%
53.0%
44.2%
38.9%
43.0%
35.0%
33.7%
33.9%
3c. Salt Matrix & Pre-set Spreader
Kentucky
Application Rates
Department
• Goal: Reduce application rates while
maintaining same LOS
of Highways
• Considers: pavement temp., heating/cooling trends, road
condition at time of service, available maintenance
strategies
• Provides: recommended application rates for
liquid and solid for initial & subsequent
treatments on reference sheets
– 4 storm scenarios (light, moderate, & heavy snow,
freezing rain)
– Drivers use their judgment to make decisions
4. Proactive Stewardship
Practices for Reducing Salt,
Sand & Chemical Usage
4a. Anti-icing
“…prevent the formation or
development of bonded snow &
ice by timely applications of a
chemical freezing-point
depressant” (vs. DLA)
• LOS, product, abrasives & plowing
• 20 – 65 gal/l-m
• Cost savings + mobility & safety
• reducing impacts to the environment,
infrastructure, vehicles
• Limitations:
– Cold temps, rain/sleet, blowing snow, air temp
above freezing & rising, high humidity
4b. RWIS
Real-time road condition information
• Used to time treatments &
determine which treatments to
use
• Benefits:
– LOS
– Cost savings
– Aid in maintenance response
– Efficiency
• Benefit/cost ratio : 1.4 to 11
www.vaisala.com
4c. Pavement Sensors &
Thermal Mapping
Maine DOT
• Monitoring, planning, treatment
strategies, forecasting
• Invasive and non-invasive
www.enterpriseflasher.com
www.cbc.ca
www.bangordailynew.com
4d. Friction Measurements
www.vaisala.com
• Monitoring, planning,
treatment strategy, prevent
over-application
• Colorado DOT
– Non-contract friction
measurements
– Provide good short/long-term
assessment of product
performance
www.mastrad.com
www.highfrictionroads.com
www.dot.state.oh.us
4e. Residual Chemical Measurement
Salinity sensors have been used to make educated
decisions about reapplication (Ye et al., 2012).
•
•
•
•
Monitor road surface product concentration
On-vehicle, embedded, or non-contact
Accurate/recalibrated application rates
Link measurements with automatic spreader
controls
• Benefits:
– Prevents over-application, saves material & $$$
4f. Road Weather Management
Decision Support
Tools that integrate road weather forecasts, coded
maintenance rules of practice, resource data to provide
recommended treatment strategies (FHWA 2011)
– Cost & material savings, benefit/cost: 1.33 to 8.67,
less use of vehicles
– Lessons learned: time needed to refine forecast &
get management on board, continued training &
exposure
4g. MDSS
4h. Improved
Weather
Forecasts
Strong, C.K., Ye, Z., Shi, X. Safety Effects of Winter Weather: The State of
Knowledge and Remaining Challenges. Transport Reviews 2010, 30(6), 677-699.
Ye, Z., Shi, X., Strong, C.K., Greenfield, T. H. Evaluation of the Effects of Weather
Information on Winter Maintenance Costs. Transportation Research Record 2009,
2107, 104-110.
Strong, C., Shi, X. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Weather Information for Winter
Maintenance: A Case Study. Transportation Research Record 2008, 2055, 119-127.
4i. Drift Control & Snow Fences
•
•
•
•
•
Reduce blowing & drifting snow
Low cost snow storage
Increased safety
Reduce need for ice control product
25 yr lifespan at $1.40 per ft2
Wildlife habitat, control
erosion, improve water
quality, reduce spring-time
flooding, sequester carbon
≥8 ft
5. Precision Application to Manage &
Reduce Chemical Applications
• Benefits
– Improved material
placement
– Return on investment
– Reduced chemical usage
– Improved environmental
stewardship
• Costs
– Equipment
– Training
– Calibration
5a. Material Distribution Systems
• Tailgate Spreaders &
Reverse dumping
• Multipurpose spreaders
• Rear Discharge
Spreaders
• Zero velocity spreaders
• Dual spinners
• Spinner
• Modified spinners
• Homemade chutes
Challenges
• Mechanical failure
• Clogging &
freezing
• Corrosion
• Frequent
calibration
5b. FAST Systems
 Reduced mobile operations
 Reduced crash frequency & delay
 Less material required
• Challenges
– Activation frequency
– System maintenance & training
• Appropriate only at a highly localized
level, as a supplement to mobile operations
• Installation should be site specific
Ye, Z., Wu, J., El Ferradi, N., Shi, X. Canadian Journal of Civil
Engineering, 2013, 40: 11–18.
5c. Calibration
• Is a must
• Train how to calibrate & keep records
• When to calibrate:
– when first acquired
– points throughout a season
– whenever a new material is used
– after repairs
– if there appears to be discrepancy in
material usage
6. Monitoring & Keeping Records
• Determine your baseline
• Use collected data to find trends
• Consider tracking:
– Total length of road
– Winter severity rating
– Number of events
– Material used
– Calibration dates
– Treatment effectiveness
7. WM Facility Management
7a. Material Storage
• All products should be stored in a manner
to minimize any loss of product
www.syracuse.com
7b. Management of Snow Disposal
Sites
The most effective way to dispose of snow is
to let it melt where it accumulates.
• If moving snow to a melting location:
– Minimize impacts (dust, litter, etc.)
– Manage meltwater to comply with local water
quality regulations
– Routinely monitoring of site capacity, soil &
water
8. Training for Salt Management
& WM Operations
• Assess the needs of your staff
• Consider who is being trained & how to
best convey that info
• Design training based on learning goals
• Training methods:
– Classroom, field, post-storm debriefing,
simulator, etc.
8a. Training Continued…
•
•
•
•
Have experienced staff conduct the training
Evaluate your training program
Assess how much information was learned
Common training methods:
– Annual operator training, Snow University,
Snow & Ice Rodeo, Computer Based Training
(CBT)
www.capitalbay.com
www.triblocal.com
9. Concluding Remarks
WHAT: deliver the right type & amount of
materials in the right location at the right time
WHY:
effectiveness & efficiency of winter operations
material usage, $$$, environmental footprint
HOW to balance LOS vs.
sustainability: best practice in
technology & management
domains
Shi, X., et al. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2013, 86:
104.
Acknowledgements
• AASHTO Standing
Committee on
Highways
• Caleb Dobbins
• William Hoffman
• Steve Lund
• Debra Nelson
• Wilfrid Nixon
• Max Perchanok
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Gabriel Guevara
Leland Smithson
Frank Lisle
Amir Hanna
Annette Dunn
Monty Mills
Michael Williams
Brian Burn
Contact Info
Xianming Shi, Ph.D., P.E., Research Professor
Manager, Winter Maintenance & Effects Program
Western Transportation Institute, PO Box 174250, Bozeman,
MT 59717-4250
[email protected]
Web: www.coe.montana.edu/me/faculty/Shi/
http://ine.uaf.edu/cesticc/
406-994-6486 (Phone)
406-994-1697 (Fax)
Questions?
www.cylelicio.us
Improved Weather Forecasts
Weather Forecasts and Information
Services
• Research has shown that winter maintenance
costs decrease as the use of weather
information increases (Ye et al., 2009).
• Accurate and timely forecasts have been shown
to save 11–25% (labor) and 4-10% (material),
but using a bad forecast can cost you (Shi et
al., 2007)
• Improved spatial resolution will provide greater
expected benefits to service levels (Fu et al.,
2009).
Electronic Spreader Controls
• Pre-set or on-demand application rates
• Use electronic ground speed controls to
provide consistent application rates.
• Can be linked with sensors (e.g. friction,
AVL, GPS)
• Modern units can record information about
– Application rate, gate position, run time, blast
information, avg. spread width/symmetry.
Rearward Casting Spreaders
(Ground-Speed and Zero-Velocity Spreaders)
• Material is discharged rearward at the
same speed as the spreading vehicle is
traveling forward.
• Keeps more material on the road where it
was placed.
• Application speeds should not exceed 35
mph, higher speeds reduce application
accuracy.
Pre-Wetting Solid Material
• Adding liquid to products or
abrasives at stockpile or at the
spreader
• Benefits
– Eases product management and distribution
– Accelerates breakup of snow/ice and enhances
melting
– Minimizes bounce and scatter, improves performance
– Increases longevity on road = less frequent
applications
Case Study: Slurry Technology
• High volume liquid anti-icer to dry salt
(30%:70%) ~ 60-90 gal/ton
• 200 lb/l-m = ~ 9 gal
• Oatmeal consistency, salt grains fully
saturated
• Slurry auger and at spinner
(Maine DOT 2005)
Slurry Technology Contd.
• Lesson Learned
– ¾ in salt allowed but smaller grains work better.
– Start with a heavier application, followed by smaller
– Some equipment has worked better than others
• Pumps, on board crushers, overall equipment
design/functionality
• Material and cost savings (Maine DOT 2005)
• Anecdotal comments:
– Goes into action quicker, acts immediately, lasts longer on
road, out-perform traditional pre-wetting methods,
minimizes bounce and scatter.
Performance Measures
• Environmental Performance Measures
– Maintain or improve ecosystem, habitat,
biodiversity, water quality, wetlands, air
quality.
– Example: water quality monitoring
– Data collection: hydrologic, biologic,
atmospheric, etc.
• Resources
– Environmental Guidebook (FHWA), Environmental Review
Toolkit (FHWA), Center for Environmental Excellence
(AASHTO), Eco-Logical, FHWA INVEST Sustainable Highways
Self Evaluation Tool
Performance Measures
• Winter Operations Performance Measures
– Mobility, reliability, accessibility, safety
– Example: time to bare lane
– Measured as: return to speed, friction, visual
inspection, etc.
www.pbase.com
A Look to the Future
•
•
•
•
Technological & institutional barriers remain
Micro-scale road wx forecasting and sensing
‘dynamic layer’ on the road surface: timing & freq.
More integrated & automated onboard sensors +
VII
• Performance measures + systematic approach to
decision making in materials selection
• Ultimate integration into the WM toolbox:
continued investment & efforts in R&D + userneeds driven product strategies

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