IMC Tactics and Strategies

Report
HELICOPTER
INADVERTENT IMC
AVOIDANCE
TACTICS AND
STRATEGIES
INADVERTENT IMC AVOIDANCE
TACTICS AND STRATEGIES
Pat A. Leone
[mouse activated for each major bullet]
3
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3
Introduction
PAT A. LEONE, AAS, BBA, ATP, CFII (US)
Rotorcraft/Helicopter
• Director of Standards, DFW Learning Center,
FlightSafety International (17 years)
• 14000 + Hours
• Military/Commercial/Corporate Aviation
• 10+ Years Experience as an Army Safety
Officer
IMPORTANT
INFORMATION
5
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
5
OVERVIEW
6
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
6
IIMC Avoidance Tactics and Strategies
Overview
• Helicopter IIMC Studies
• Anatomy of an IIMC Accident (Why?
How?)
• Avoidance Tactics and Strategies
• IIMC Recovery
• A Glimpse of New Technologies
7
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
7
IIMC Accident Studies
8
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
8
Principal IIMC References
9
Source
Title
Understanding the Human Factors Associated
With VFR Flight into IMC (Abbreviated)
U.S. DOT/FAA Office of
Understanding the Human Factors
Aerospace Medicine
Associated with VFR Flight into IMC
May
2008
National Research Laboratories
of the Netherlands (NLR)
Helicopter Flight in a Degraded Visual
Environment
Dec
2013
International Helicopter Safety
Team (IHST)
Training Fact Sheet – Inadvertent Entry
Into Instrument Meteorological
Conditions (IIMC)
UNK
U.S. Helicopter Safety Team
(USHST)
Comparative Report, Vol. 2 (Comparing
data CY2001,02,06 with CY2009-11)
AUG
2014
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
Date
9
Principal IIMC References
10
Source
Title
Understanding the Human Factors Associated
With VFR Flight into IMC (Abbreviated)
U.S. DOT/FAA Office of
Understanding the Human Factors
Aerospace Medicine
Associated with VFR Flight into IMC
May
2008
National
Research
Helicopter
Flight in a Degraded Visual
“Visual Flight
RulesLaboratories
(VFR) into Instrument
Meteorological
of
the Netherlands
(NLR) are a major
Environment
Conditions
(IMC) accidents
concern in the
Dec
2013
aviation
industry.
More than
of the fatal
International
Helicopter
Safety70%Training
Factweather-related
Sheet – Inadvertent Entry
accidents
involved General Aviation
(GA)
pilots operating
Team (IHST)
Into
Instrument
Meteorological
under visual flight rules (VFR) thatConditions
continued (IIMC)
into IMC.” “The
results
indicatedSafety
that Team
. . VFR—IMCComparative
pilots were more
likely
U.S. Helicopter
Report,
Vol.to
2 (Comparing
commit
a perceptual error
. .;
(USHST) a decision error . .; experience
data CY2001,02,06
with CY2009-11)
and commit a violation . . than RoGA.” (the Rest of General
Aviation)
UNK
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
Date
AUG
2014
10
Principal IIMC References
11
Source
Title
Understanding the Human Factors Associated
With VFR Flight into IMC (Abbreviated)
U.S. DOT/FAA Office of
Understanding the Human Factors
Aerospace Medicine
Associated with VFR Flight into IMC
May
2008
National Research Laboratories
of the Netherlands (NLR)
Helicopter Flight in a Degraded Visual
Environment
Dec
2013
International Helicopter Safety
Team (IHST)
Training Fact Sheet – Inadvertent Entry
Into Instrument Meteorological
Conditions (IIMC)
UNK
U.S. Helicopter Safety Team
(USHST)
Comparative Report, Vol. 2 (Comparing
data CY2001,02,06 with CY2009-11)
AUG
2014
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
Date
11
Principal IIMC References
12
Source
Title
Understanding the Human Factors Associated
With VFR Flight into IMC (Abbreviated)
U.S. DOT/FAA Office of
Understanding the Human Factors
Aerospace Medicine
Associated with VFR Flight into IMC
May
2008
National Research Laboratories
of the Netherlands (NLR)
Helicopter Flight in a Degraded Visual
Environment
Dec
2013
International Helicopter Safety
Team (IHST)
Training Fact Sheet – Inadvertent Entry
Into Instrument Meteorological
Conditions (IIMC)
UNK
U.S. Helicopter Safety Team
(USHST)
Comparative Report, Vol. 2 (Comparing
data CY2001,02,06 with CY2009-11)
AUG
2014
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.
Date
12
INADVERTENT IMC
Inadvertent IMC – What is it?
Pat’s Definition:
“Unplanned, Unexpected and
Unintentional Entry into the
Instrument Environment”
Why Do IIMC Accidents Occur?
Cause: Human or
Meteorological?
Why Do IIMC Accidents Occur?
•
•
•
•
Mission?
Management?
Financial?
Poor Decision Making?
Why Do IIMC Accidents Occur?
Or is it:
PRES
SURE
?
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
Let’s take a ride in my BH 206:
Mission: Pick up Boss to take him
and family to airport for vacation
WX: 00000 2KM BR OVC004 21 21
A2985
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
PLAN:
Avoid IMC
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
Weather – actually a little worse than
forecast
5 Miles from airport – frequency
change
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
180 Degree Turn/
Return to VMC
• Pilot initiates the maneuver by moving the cyclic
in the direction of turn (normally to pilot side)
• Rotates head to scan outside of window in the
direction of turn
• Helicopter continues to roll near or fully
inverted position
• Helicopter loses altitude and impacts terrain
Single Pilot IIMC Accident
“The weather was terrible last night. But that's what we
do. We call it pushing the weather.”
[TYPEWRITER IN]
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
Lesson Elements
•
•
•
•
•
Understanding the Body in Space
Unplanned Entry into IMC – What Happens
Natural Physiological Response
Exit Tactics
Failure/Success Modes
• Humans Are VFR-Only:
– Senses used to maintain balance are unreliable when
bodies are in a “controlled gravity” situation
– Visual reference overrides other senses’ input to the
brain, providing constantly updated reality checks
– Reliance on non visual sensory inputs can cause pilots
deprived of visual references to quickly lose control of
an aircraft
– We will explore what happens
23
OVERVIEW
24
The Human Body
•
The Sensory Organs of the Body
– Visual
– Vestibular
– Proprioceptive
• The Psoas Muscle
• Human Decision Making Under Stress
• Strategies for Overcoming Their Effects
25
VISUAL SYSTEM
Most reliable source of
information:
•
– 90% of information used for
point of reference comes
through the eyes
– Overrides conflicting sensations
from other systems
– Vision in VMC enables proper
orientation to Earth by
reference to the ground,
sky and horizon
– Pilots have a tendency to rely
too much on outside visual
references, ignoring what they
can see in IIMC
26
VISUAL SYSTEM
•
Limitations:
– Pilot is rarely aware brain
receives conflicting signals
from other systems
– Vulnerable to sensory
misinformation, causing
errors in processing
or interpreting
– Succumbing to illusions
can lead quickly to
irreversible spatial
disorientation
27
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
28
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
•Semicircular Canals:
PITCH
– Three half-circular, interconnected
tubes located in each ear
– Equivalent of three gyroscopes
located in three orthogonal planes
– Canals are not perpendicular
– Head movements stimulate
horizontal and vertical
canals simultaneously
•Otolithic Organs:
– Sense Linear Accelerations
– Send Signals to eye and balance
muscles
29
YAW
ROLL
SEMICIRCULAR
CANALS
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
• Linear accelerations stimulate
otolith organs, because the resulting
inertial forces cannot be
distinguished physically from the
force of gravity
• Forward acceleration results in
backward displacement of otolithic
membrane, creating an illusion of
backward tilt.
• The system can establish an altered
plane of reference
• This is more commonly experienced
during turns
• Pilot must rely on instruments to
prevent disorientation
30
PITCH
YAW
ROLL
SEMICIRCULAR
CANALS
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM
31
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM
•
Composed of
– Nerves in the
•
•
•
•
Skin
Muscles
Joints
Internal organs
• Relatively unnoticed on
the ground
• Nerves sense pressure
differentials when
airborne
• Pilots feel changes in Gforces and pressure as
the body reacts to
aircraft motion
32
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM
•
Normally used as a back up
to our visual system
• Can be easily confused in
flight
• Any change in G-forces can
mislead the pilot regarding
aircraft attitude
• Combination of semicircular
canals, otolith, and
proprioceptive signals in flight
cause somatogyral illusions
can occur
33
PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM
Otoliths &
Somatogyral illusions
Semi-Circular
Canals
• Vestibular – Illusions of Orientation
• Coriolis – “Tumbling of internal gyros” – Most
dangerous
• Leans – Pilot senses turn in straight and level
flight, leaning in opposite direction
• Oculogravic – Acceleration/ Deceleration in
level flight causes otolith organs to sense a
nose-high attitude relative to gravity
• Rotational (Angular Motion) – Result from
misinformation from a contant-rate turn
34
Proprioceptive
Organs
PSOAS MUSCLE
35
PSOAS MUSCLE
36
PSOAS MUSCLE
• Large muscle that anchors your leg to your trunk, which
Influences movement and rotation of the pelvis
• All organs are in contact, either directly or indirectly with the
diaphragm and psoas.
• Functions to bend your hip and leg towards your chest
• Psoas flexes the hip when the fear reflex is activated (as seen
in a startled infant when legs move up toward its face to
protect itself)
• During stress times, in self protection mode, psoas is in
constant state of contraction
• Other natural self protection mechanisms cause the arms to
move
37 up and over the head to provide protection
Decision Making Under Stress
38
Decision Making Under Stress
• Basic Brain Function in Thinking and Decision Making
• Thalmus – receives organ sensory inputs (perceptions)
via nerves and transmits information to the Cerebral Cortex
• Cerebral Cortex –
• Interprets, filters and assimilates information;
• Discriminates between automatic and conscious
responses
• Limbic System –
• Responsible for emotions, feelings, character traits
and behavior
• Provides input back to Thalmus, which then secretes
neurohormones which stimulate the pituitary gland
• Stress reaction begins
39
Decision Making Under Stress
• Brain Function Under Great Stress
• Process of thinking usually characterized by:
• Loss of concentration
• Inability to perceive new information (to learn)
• Hampered short-term memory
• Lack of initial planning of actions
• Hasty decision making
• Temporary damage of the hippocampus (responsible
for learning and memory
40
Decision Making Under Stress
• Brain Function Under Great Stress
• Stress response obviously aimed at immediate physical
reaction
• Processes such as learning and planning not of primary
concern
• More important to react physically ASAP, rather than to
react in the most appropriate way (which involves planning,
which requires a loss of precious time
41
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
Sometimes, when a person has suffered extreme physical
or psychological trauma (including massive stress), they
will assume the fetal position or a similar position in which
the back is curved forward, the legs are brought up as
tightly against the abdomen as possible, the head is
bowed as close to the abdomen as possible, and the arms
are wrapped around the head to prevent further trauma.
This position provides better protection to the brain and
vital organs than simply lying spread out on the ground, so
it is obvious as to why it is an instinctual reaction to
extreme stress or trauma when the brain is no longer able
to cope with the surrounding environment, and in essence
“shuts down” temporarily.
Anatomy of an IIMC
CFIT Accident
ILLUSTRATION
SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
45
Human Factors Contributing to IIMC Accidents
Skill-based
Errors
Personal
Readiness
Technological
Environment
Perceptual
Errors
Physical/
mental
limitations
Adverse
physiological
states
Decision
Errors
Violations
Adverse
Mental States
Crew
Resource
Management
Human Factors Contributing to IIMC Accidents
Skill-based
Skill-based errors (occur with little or no conscious
thought, ie: driving a car) – most
Errors
common GA error
Decision
Personal
Decision Errors (misinterpretation
common in IIMC CFIT
Readiness or improper choices) – mostErrors
accidents
Perceptual errors (arise when sensory input is degraded)
Violations (routine/habitual vs exceptional (to excess))
Technological
Perceptual attitudes
Adverse mental
states (loss of SA, fatigue, circadian dysrhythmia, pernicious
Environment
Errors
(overconfidence, complacency, misplaced motive))
Adverse physiological states (spatial disorientation, visual illusions, hypoxia, illness,
intoxication)
Physical/mental limitations (necessary sensory information isn’t available, or individuals
Physical/
lack aptitude, skill,
or time to safely deal with)
Violations
mental
Crew resourcelimitations
management (confusion, poor decision making, due to internal and
external communications failures)
Personal readiness: lack of crew rest, self medication, overall not ready for flight
Adverse
Technological environment
(TE): equipment/control design, display/interface
Adverse
physiological
characteristics, checklist design, automation
Mental States
states
Crew
Resource
Management
AVOIDANCE STRATEGIES AND
TACTICS
The Art of Avoiding
IIMC
Session Elements
SMS – Safety Management Systems
Tactical Considerations
SMS
Overview
• What is it?
– Per AC 120-92: “a quality management approach to
controlling risk.”
• Benefits:
–
–
–
–
–
Promotes a sound safety culture
Involves management
Identifies threats and hazards proactively
Provides opportunities to control risks effectively
Considers both severity of consequences and
likelihood of occurrence
SMS
• Safety Culture –
– Essential human component of an organization
– Reflects the organization’s values, beliefs, legends,
rituals, mission goals, performance measures, and
sense of responsibility to its employees, customers,
and the community
– Consists of psychological, behavioral, and
organizational elements
• Organizational elements most under management control
• Other two elements are outcomes of management efforts
SMS
• Management Role
– Top management primarily responsible for safety
management
– Managers plan, organize, direct, control activities
– Allocation of Resources to insure effective controls
– Must clearly delineate safety responsibilities
– Empower organizational members
• Organizational Members
– Must know their responsibilities
– Must be involved
SMS
• Safety Risk Management
– Used to examine operational functions of the
organization and operational environment
– Identify hazards
– Analyze associated risk
– Focuses on areas of greatest risk from a safety
perspective
– Takes into account complexity, operational scope,
etc.
SMS
Excerpt from AC
120-92A, Figure 2
SMS
\\prt12N\FILE_SHARE\SCAN
Tactical Considerations
Tactical Considerations
• PREFLIGHT PLANNING
– Self Assessment
– Crew Composition and Assessment
– Helicopter Configuration and Capabilities
– Route Planning/ Reconnaissance
– Flight Considerations
• Weather
• Terrain and obstacles
• ATC facilities
– Instrument approach planning
– Call Home!!
Tactical Considerations
• PREFLIGHT PLANNING
– Self Assessment
• Instrument Training & Experience
–
–
–
–
Depth and Breadth (When? Where? Conditions?)
Total Time vs Recency
Proficiency vs Currency
Having an Instrument Certificate May Mean Nothing
• IMSAFE
– Crew Composition, Capabilities, Limitations
• Single Pilot
• Single Pilot with Operator/Medic/Passenger(s)
• Two Pilots (Assess Crew Capability)
Tactical Considerations
• PREFLIGHT PLANNING
– Helicopter Configuration and Capability
•
•
•
•
•
No Flight Instruments?
Basic Flight Instruments?
AFCS?
FD?
Cockpit Set Up
– Flight Considerations
• Weather
• Terrain and Obstacles (Hazards Planning)
• Airport/Instrument Approach/ATC Facilities
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Weather Briefing
– Formal
•
•
•
•
Weather Services (Commercial/Government)
Computer imagery
Forecasts/SIGMETS/AIRMETS
Know/Learn How to Use Them (Temp vs Dew Point)
– Informal
• Local Weather Lore
• Contacts at the Destination
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Weather Minimums:
– Regulatory
– SOP
– Personal
– STICK TO THEM!
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Terrain and obstacle planning:
– Evaluate terrain in relationship to the weather
– Look for routes that will provide the best weather
– Determine where the high terrain and obstacles
are along your intended route of flight
– Look for alternate routes
– Evaluate aircraft climb performance
in relation to the terrain
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• ATC facilities:
– Determine the ATC facilities along the route of
flight
– Know their frequencies and hours of operation
– Understand what services they can provide you
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Airport/Instrument approach planning:
– Determine available airports in the vicinity
– Check available approach procedures
– Determine compatibility with
onboard navigation devices
– Have current approach plates
available
- Check NOTAMS
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Aircraft configuration:
– Is the aircraft certified for flight in IMC conditions
– Are all flight instruments in a working condition
– Are communication and navigation radios
functional
– Will there be enough fuel on the aircraft to allow
for IMC operations
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Cockpit Setup:
– Seating position set for instrument flying
– Communication and navigation radios set for a
quick transition to IMC
flight
– Approach charts
readily available
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
CALL HOME!!!
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
If the choice is to fly,
HAVE A PLAN!!!
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
• Error Planning Vs Success Planning
• Single Plan (Avoid Weather)
• Single Plan with Backup
• Plan for Success
• What to do if IIMC Occurs?
PREFLIGHT PLANNING
EVERY HELICOPTER PILOT
NEEDS TO HAVE AN IIMC
RECOVERY/SURVIVAL
PLAN!!!!
Joel S. Harris
DURING FLIGHT
DURING FLIGHT
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Weather updates
• Airspeed and altitude considerations
• Remain in VMC conditions
• Use low weather routes
• Maintain contact with ATC facilities if possible
• Abort or diversion considerations
– Stop
– Turn around
– Use planned alternate route
• Always maintain situational awareness
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Weather updates:
– Make contact with en-route weather reporting
facilities to ensure you know the most current
weather conditions
– Monitor ATIS and AWOS facilities along the route
of flight
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Airspeed and altitude:
– Do not fly faster than you can see.
– Adjust altitude to avoid weather but maintain
enough altitude for safe maneuvering
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Aircraft configuration:
– Operate the aircraft in the most stable mode
available (attitude retention vs. SCAS/Force
Trim/Friction)
– Have flight director functions tested and set when
available
– If equipped, Have FMS/Nav /Comm Radios
set/tuned for immediate recovery
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Remaining in VMC conditions:
– Adjust speed to allow for reaction time
– Ensure you have visual references along your
desired flight path.
– Be very aware of deteriorating conditions
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Low weather routes:
– Attempt to use low weather
routes instead of going direct
– Try to determine several route
options that will allow for safe
completion of the flight
– Consider the usefulness of a
route during night operations
IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONS
• Communications:
– Establish and
maintain contact
with the nearest
available ATC
facility (or local
control/admin)
– Relate/update your
intentions
– Request weather
and traffic
advisories
– Stick to your
Abort/Turn
Around Plan
IN FLIGHT OPERATIONS
Abort or diversion considerations:
– Signs of deteriorating weather conditions
– Make the abort or diversion decision prior to
getting into weather that may force you to go IMC
– Use a preplanned diversion that most likely will
allow you to successfully complete the flight
– If IFR equipped and proficient - transition to IFR
using a preplanned transition plan
INADVERTENT IMC
RECOVERY
INADVERTENT IMC RECOVERY
• Is it possible?
• How would you define success?
• How would you prepare yourself to achieve
that success?
IIMC Recovery
Lesson Elements
• Know Yourself
• Know Your Equipment
• Know Your Environment
• Commit to the Instruments
• Have a Plan/Execute the Plan
• Multi Pilot Considerations
• Hands On/Hands Off Considerations
• U.S. Army Strategy: Emergency IMC Recovery
Plan
• Train for success
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Know yourself
• Instrument Proficiency Assessment
•
• Know Your Equipment
• Stabilization equipment
• Available, functioning?
• Do you know how to use it?
• Capabilities/limitations?
• No stabilization? Force Trim? Try Friction
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Know Your Equipment
• Stabilization equipment
• Available, functioning?
• Capabilities/limitations?
• Relationship between speed/altitude hold and power settings
• Do you know how to use it?
• Are you comfortable using it (trust)?
• No stabilization?
• Force Trim
• Friction Controls
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• If you are not instrument proficient - FREEZE
• Don’t move anything
• Move only one control at a time, and by a very
little bit
• Adjust other controls, one at a time
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Commit to the instruments
• You are no longer flying – you are playing a video
game
• Scan
• Don’t become fixated – keep your eyes moving
• Don’t try to fix one thing completely – just get it
moving in the right direction
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Have a Plan/Execute the Plan
• Know where you are
• Know where the obstacles are and prioritize them
• Use pre-planned escape routes
• Do not turn unless it is required to avoid known
obstacles or terrain
• A bad plan may be much better than no plan at all
(example)
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Multi Pilot Considerations
• Brief IIMC plan
• Flying pilot remains on instruments
• Non flying pilot divides attention inside and
outside
• Non flying pilot coaches flying pilot
• Hands On/Hands Off Considerations
• Military Strategy: Emergency IMC Recovery Plan
• Train for success
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
Train, Train, Train
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
Why is Training
Important?
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Training
•
•
•
•
•
Overcomes Natural Effects of Extreme Stress
Enhances Confidence
Improves the Likelihood of Success
Provides a Proven Path to Recovery
Saves Lives!
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Effective Training
• Replicates Real Life Events and Circumstances
• Presents High Risk Tasks in a Managed Risk
Environment
• Is Purposeful
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Where To train:
• Formally – School or Certified Instructor
•
•
•
•
•
•
Best
Structured
Allows for Supervision/Objective Evaluation
Provides Known/Established Standard
Provides Rating
Drawbacks
•
•
Availability
Expensive
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Where To train:
• Informally - On Your Own
•
•
•
•
•
Requires Commitment
Avoids Large Expenditures
More Flexible
Can Occur in Your Environment
Best With your Equipment
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Where To train:
• Company Sponsored Program
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Controlled Internally
Balances Expense and Availability
May Lead to Additional Rating
Demonstrates Company Commitment to Quality
Instrument Training
Environmentally Specific
Equipment Specific
Structure Based
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• How To train On Your Own:
• Train to the Standard (Practical Test Standard)
• With your Equipment
• When Possible, Use Synthetic Flight Training
Devices
• Establish Training Schedule & Stick With It!
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Entering into the IMC Environment
• Commit to the Instruments
•
•
Most Important
Required Under All Circumstances
• Execute the Plan
•
•
Avoids Panic Response
Better Assures Recovery
Successful Recovery From an Inadvertent IMC
Event
• Scan
• Don’t become fixated – keep your eyes moving
• Don’t try to fix one thing completely – just get it
moving in the right direction
• Commit to the Instruments
• Have a Plan/Execute the Plan
• Single/Multi Crew Considerations
• Hands On/Hands Off Considerations
• Military Strategy: Emergency IMC Recovery Plan
• Train for success
FINALLY
– Execute the Plan!!!
• Divert
• Climb
• Stop
• Abort
• Recover
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
– GPWS (Ground Proximity Warning
System)
– EGPWS (Enhanced Ground Proximity
Warning System
–HTAWS (Helicopter Terrain Avoidance
Warning Systems)
–Visual Attitude Recovery Systems
LESSON SUMMARY
– In this time we have discussed:
• Helicopter IIMC Studies
• Anatomy of an IIMC Accident
(Why? How?)
• Avoidance Tactics and Strategies
• IIMC Recovery
• A Glimpse of New Technologies
CONCLUSION
We have discussed conditions that could lead
to spatial disorientation and solutions to some
of the problems that arise.
109
Questions?
110
FINALLY – ALWAYS REMEMBER:
CALL HOME!!!
111
112
Copyright © 2008 FlightSafety International, Inc. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution is prohibited.

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