Aerodrome Inspectors Training * Module 6

Report
AERODROME TRAINING COURSE
– MODULE 6
Services
LEARNING OUTCOME
Participants will gain an overview of the services
required to be provided at an international airport
including:
• Meteorology
• Aeronautical Information Services
• Instrument flight procedures
• Air traffic control
• Apron management
• Aeronautical telecommunications
• Rescue fire fighting
• Security
 With reference to documents they will be able to
establish required service levels.
ICAO ANP
METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES
ICAO Annex 3 Meteorological Services for
International Aviation
 AIP GEN 3.5 details the services provided and
the decodes of MET
 Service provided direct to many airlines by
commercial agreements with MET organisations
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METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES
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METAR – Routine aerodrome reports issued on the hour
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SPECI – Special reports issued off the hour when weather element
has changed significantly since METAR was issued
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Take-off and Landing Reports – Issued by ATS immediately prior
to take-off or landing. Can be transmitted on ATIS
SPAR- Special Aerodrome Reports issued by ATS contains only those
elements of operational relevance eg X-wind, marginal WX etc
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ARFOR – Area Forecasts
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TAF – Aerodrome forecasts issued 4 times per day 1 hours before
validity period
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SIGMET- Report of enroute significant weather phenomena (volcanic,
severe turbulence, icing etc
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VOLMET – broadcast on HF of MET data for international aviation
MET REPORTS - DECODE
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METAR –
METAR NZWN 072100Z 36018KT 9999 FEW015 21/16 Q1015
NOSIG RMK KAUKAU 36021KT=
MET report for Wellington Airport 7th Jan 2100 UTC (8th Jan
10.00AM), Surface Wind 360°True 18 knots, visibility greater than
10km, 1-22 oktas cloud 1500ft above aerodrome level, temperature
21°C, dew point 16°C, Barometric sea level pressure 1015hPA, no
significant weather, wind at Mt Kaukau 360° true 21 knots
TAF - TAF NZWN 071703Z 0718/0818 36018KT 9999 FEW010
BKN020 TEMPO 0718/0720 BKN014 TEMPO 0812/0818 BKN012
2000FT WIND 01025KT BECMG 0804/0806 34035KT =
Aerodrome forecast for Wellington Airport, issued at 7 Jan 1703 UTC
valid from 1800 7th Jan UTC to 1800 8th Jan. Surface wind 360°
18kts, visibility greater than 10km, 1-2 oktas cloud 1000ft above
aerodrome, 5-7 oktas cloud 2000ft, between 1800 – 2000 UTC for
period less than 1 hour 5-7 oktas cloud 14000ft and between 12001800 UTC for periods less than 1 hour 5-7 oktas cloud 1200ft. Wind at
2000ft 010° true 25 knots becoming 0400 – 0600 UTC 340°true 35
knots.
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICE
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AIS specified in ICAO Annex 15 Aeronautical Information
Services.
AIS consists of:
Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) – contains
information of a permanent nature
Aeronautical charts
AIP Supplement information of 1 day to 4 months
duration
NOTAM information able to changed on H24 basis
Pre-flight briefing services
Information required to be published in AIP detailed in
Annex 15 Appendix 1 Part 3 (AD Section)
Aerodrome Information required to be provided to AIS by
aerodrome operator detailed in Annex 14 Chapter 2
AIS
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AIRAC Cycle (Aeronautical Information Regulation and
Control) Common date very 28 days to make changes to
aeronautical information coordinated on a global basis.
Information Management – Amount of information required
to support aviation and the modern navigation and flight
management system has meant a significant change is under
way in how AIS data is collated and distributed to ensure
accuracy and integrity of the data. Becoming dependent on
electronic medium for all data.
AIXM – Aeronautical Information Exchange Model – common
model for electronic packing and exchange of AIS started with
Eurocontrol and now being accepted Globally
AIS DATA
AIS DATA
AIS DATA
AIS - NOTAM
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A NOTAM shall be originated and issued promptly
whenever the information to be distributed is of a
temporary nature and of short duration or when
operationally significant permanent changes, or temporary
changes of long duration are made at short notice, except
for extensive text and/or graphics.
Note 1.— Operationally significant changes concerning
circumstances listed in Appendix 4, Part 1, are issued under
the Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control
(AIRAC) system specified in Chapter 6. (AIP Text/charts)
Note 2.— Information of short duration containing
extensive text and/or graphics is published as an AIP
Supplement
CHECK AIS CUT OFF DATES TO USE SUPPLEMENT
RATHER THAN MISUSE NOTAM
AIS – AERODROME DATA
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Aerodrome Reference Point shall be measured and reported to
the aeronautical information services authority in degrees,
minutes and seconds.
The aerodrome elevation and geoid undulation at the aerodrome
elevation position shall be measured to the accuracy of one-half
metre or foot and reported to the aeronautical information
services authority.
For non-precision approaches, the elevation and geoid
undulation of each threshold, the elevation of the runway end
and any significant high and low intermediate points along the
runway shall be measured to the accuracy of one-half metre or
foot
For precision approach runway, the elevation and geoid
undulation of the threshold, the elevation of the runway end and
the highest elevation of the touchdown zone shall be measured
to the accuracy of one-quarter metre or foot
AERODROME DATA
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An aerodrome reference temperature shall be determined for an aerodrome
in degrees Celsius
runway — true bearing to one-hundredth of a degree, designation number,
length, width, displaced threshold location to the nearest metre or foot,
slope, surface type, type of runway and, for a precision approach runway
category I, the existence of an obstacle free zone when provided;
Strip /runway end safety area/ stopway - length, width to the nearest metre
or foot, surface type;
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taxiway — designation, width, surface type;
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apron — surface type, aircraft stands
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the boundaries of the air traffic control service
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clearway — length to the nearest metre or foot, ground profile;
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visual aids for approach procedures, marking and lighting of runways,
taxiways and aprons, other visual guidance and control aids on taxiways
and aprons, including taxi-holding positions and stopbars, and location and
type of visual docking guidance systems
AERODROME DATA
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location and radio frequency of any VOR aerodrome checkpoint;
location and designation of standard taxi-routes;
distances to the nearest metre or foot of localizer and glide path
elements comprising an instrument landing system (ILS) or
azimuth and elevation antenna of a microwave landing system
(MLS) in relation to the associated runway extremities
The geographical coordinates of each threshold shall be measured
and reported to the aeronautical information services authority in
degrees, minutes, seconds and hundredths of seconds.
The geographical coordinates of appropriate taxiway centre line
points shall be measured and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in degrees, minutes, seconds and
hundredths of seconds.
The geographical coordinates of each aircraft stand shall be
measured and reported to the aeronautical information services
authority in degrees, minutes, seconds and hundredths of seconds
The geographical coordinates of obstacles in Area 2 (TMA) & Area
3 (within aerodrome boundary)
AERODROME DATA
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Strength of Pavements – PCN
One or more pre-flight altimeter check locations shall be
established for an aerodrome.
The following distances shall be calculated to the nearest metre
or foot for a runway intended for use by international
commercial air transport:
a) take-off run available;
b) take-off distance available;
c) accelerate-stop distance available; and
d) landing distance available.
The condition of the movement area and the operational status
of related facilities shall be monitored and reports on matters
of operational significance or affecting aircraft performance
given, - Works, broken surface, snow, slush, visual aid failures ,
secondary power failure
DECLARED DISTANCES
AERODROME DATA
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Disabled aircraft removal
Rescue fire fighting
VASIS – Type, Axis, Slope,
MEHT
Coordination between
aeronautical information
services and aerodrome
authorities – Agreement
WGS 84 – all geographic
coordinates - “Dennis war
story”
TYPE A CHART
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
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Air traffic service. A generic term meaning variously, flight
information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service,
air traffic control service (area control service, approach control
service or aerodrome control service).
Air traffic control service. A service provided for the purpose
of:
a) preventing collisions:
1) between aircraft, and
2) on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and
obstructions;
b) expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.
Level of Service Dependent on amount and type of air traffic
and designation of surrounding airspace.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
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ATC requires certification as an ATS provider Annex11
Air traffic control tower provides an aerodrome control
service for aircraft on the manoeuvring area and in the
local circuit up to2000ft. Approach and area control are
normally provided from ACC
ATC Separations
Vertical 1000ft
Lateral Radar 5NM with 3NM at certain major airports
Lateral Procedural angular split depending on navaid
and DME distance and/or time
CNS-ATM/PBN Significant enhancement to achieve
aircraft
operating efficiencies, reduced flight times/track miles
APRON MANAGEMENT SERVICE
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Apron management service means a service provided to regulate the
activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on an apron:
Apron means a defined area on a land aerodrome intended to accommodate
aircraft for the purpose of loading or unloading passengers or cargo,
refuelling, parking, or maintenance:
Manoeuvring area—
(1) means that part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off and
landing of aircraft and for the surface movement of aircraft
associated with take-off and landing; but
(2) does not include areas set aside for loading, unloading, or
maintenance of aircraft:
Movement area means that part of an aerodrome intended to be used for
the take-off and landing of aircraft and for the surface movement of
aircraft, and includes the manoeuvring area, maintenance areas, and
aprons:
APRON MANAGEMENT SERVICE
When warranted by the volume of traffic and operating
conditions, an appropriate apron management service
should be provided on an apron by an aerodrome ATS
unit, by another aerodrome operating authority, or by
a cooperative combination of these, in order to:
a) regulate movement with the objective of preventing
collisions between aircraft, and between aircraft and
obstacles;
b) regulate entry of aircraft into, and coordinate exit of
aircraft from, the apron with the aerodrome control
tower; and
c) ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and
appropriate regulation of other activities.
NOTE AMS is not an Air Traffic Service
APRON MANAGEMENT SERVICE
AMS may be provided by the aerodrome ATS unit, by a unit set up by
The airport company, by airline/GSH, or by coordinated control between
ATS and the airport company.
Coordinated AMS
Radio control of aircraft requiring start up or push back is vested with
ATC tower and control of vehicles is the responsibility of the airport
Company.
Instructions to aircraft is given on the understanding that separation
between aircraft and vehicles not under radio control is not
Included in the instruction.
Airport company has effective control of vehicles through licensing
Drivers and vehicles, procedures, airside roads etc.
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PROCEDURES
Primary and Secondary areas OAS
Primary areas 2 sigma (95%) containment
Secondary areas 3 sigma (99.7%) containment
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PROCEDURES
Categories of Aircraft
Aircraft performance has a direct effect on the airspace and visibility
required for the various manoeuvres associated with the conduct of
instrument approach procedures. The most significant performance
factor is aircraft speed.
Based on 1.3Vs (stall speed max cert landing weight)
category
A
B
1.3 Vs
91kt
121kt
C
D
141kt 166kt
E
H
211kt
Copter
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES
AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
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Requires to comply with Annex 10 to provide
telecommunication service – CNS
Communications – VHF A/G voice, HF A/G voice,
HF A/G data, VHF A/G data, Satellite A/G data,
G/G voice, G/G data (AFTN and ATN)
Navigation – NDB, VOR, DME, ILS, TACAN
(MIL), GNSS-GBAS, GNSS-SBAS, GNSS-ABAS
Surveillance – Primary Radar (PSR), Secondary
Surveillance Radar (SSR) Mode A, Mode C, Mode
S, ADS-B, ADS-C, Multi-lateration
AERODROME EMERGENCY PLAN
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Aerodromes emergency plan (AEP) shall be established
commensurate with the aircraft operations. The plan shall
contain procedures for periodic testing of the adequacy of
the plan
Aerodrome emergency planning is the process of preparing
an aerodrome to cope with an emergency occurring at the
aerodrome or in its vicinity. The objective of aerodrome
emergency planning is to minimize the effects of an
emergency, particularly in respect of saving lives and
maintaining aircraft operations. The aerodrome emergency
plan sets forth the procedures for coordinating the response
of different aerodrome agencies (or services) and of those
agencies in the surrounding community that could be of
assistance in responding to the emergency.
AEP - CONTENT
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Types of emergencies. Provide for the coordination of agencies
in responding to anticipated emergencies at the aerodrome or in
the aerodrome vicinity. Emergencies can be generally categorised
into two different groupings depending upon how the plan is
structured. There are emergencies that involve aircraft and those
that do not. –Full, local standby,
Procedures for prompt response to emergencies.
Guidance to personnel
The role and the responsibility of each agency
EOC – Command Centre
Names, telephone numbers, contact details
Grid map local area
AEP OPERATOR REQUIREMENTS
Requires Aerodrome operator to coordinate and
ensure participation of all relevant parties in
developing plan
 Maintenance of Plan – Full exercise every 2
years, partial emergency exercise every other
year, debrief after every emergency and exercise,
 Ensure plan is updated as required
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RESCUE FIRE-FIGHTING SERVICE
Level of Protection (category) dependent on size of aircraft
operating at airport. Where number of movements of aircraft of highest
category less than 700 in busiest consecutive 3 months allowed to
provide 1 category below (up to Nov 09)
RFFS EXTINGUISHING AGENTS
RFFS AIRCRAFT CRASH LOCATIONS
RFFS
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Response Time – from receiving initial call to 1st on
site applying foam at 50% rate as per 9-2 not to
exceed 3 minutes to any point of each operational
runway and (recommended) movement area.
Minimum numbers of vehicles Cat 1-5 1, cat 5-7 2,
Cat 8-10 3.
Personnel – sufficient in number and readily
available to operate the rescue and fire-fighting
vehicles and equipment at maximum capacity
Aerodrome location near water or difficult terrain
specialist rescue services and equipment such as
boats
PRACTICAL EXERCISES
1.
2.
3.
What coordinate system should be used for
publishing geographic coordinates in the AIP:
(a) States nationally adopted datum, (b)
WGS72, (c) WGS 84
What is the requirements for the accuracy and
integrity of an instrument runway precision Cat
1 runway threshold coordinates
Complete the handout on declared distances

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