Laser 3 of 3

Laser resistant tracheal tube
a. The Norton tube:
Stainless steel
Flexible tube
No cuff
Laser resistant tracheal tube
b.The Laser Flex tube (Mallinckrodt laser
Airtight stainless steel tube
Uncuffed or with two cuffs
Laser resistant tracheal tube
c.The Laser-Shield II (Xomed-laser shield II
 Silicone tube
 Inner aluminum wrap
 Outer Teflon coating
Laser resistant tracheal tube
d. The Bivona Fome-Cuff laser tube:
 Designed to solve the perforated-cuff-deflationproblem.
 It consists of an aluminum wrapped silicone
tube with unique self inflating foam sponge
filled cuff which prevent deflation after
Reduction of the flammability of ETT:
B. Wrapped standard tubes:
Standard tracheal tubes (rubber, silicon, and
Wrapped with laser resistant material (except
the cuff).
the wrapped material may be:
 Aluminum or copper foil tape with
adhesive back.
 Merocel laser guard (merocel wrap).
Wrapped standard tubes
Disadvantage of wrapping:
No cuff protection.
 Add thickness to the tube.
 Not an FDA approved device.
 May reflect laser beam to non target tissue.
Protection varies with the type of the metal
foil used.
Air way obstruction.
 Rough edges may cause damage to mucosal
Wrapped standard tubes
Mechanism of wrapping:
Paint the tube with medical adhesive such
as benzoin.
Cut the end of the tape with scalpel to
approximately 60 degree.
Start wrapping from the junction of the tube
and the proximal end of the cuff
Wrapping in spiral with 30% to 50% overlap
Wrapping include the inflation tube of the
Wrapped standard tubes
 Protection of the cuff:
 Filling the cuff with saline colored with
methylene blue.
 Place the cuff distally in the trachea and
covered visible cuff with moistened cotton
Approaches to reduce the incidence of
airway fire:
Removal of flammable material from air way:
a) Jet ventilation:
• Use high pressure oxygen source directed at
the glottis through small metal tube such as
ventilating bronchoscope or 12 gauge blunt
• it permit entrainment of oxygen enriched
air during inspiration and escape of carbon
dioxide and exhaust gases during expiration.
Removal of flammable material from air way
 Adequate ventilation without introducing
flammable material.
 No obstacle to the surgical field.
 Barotrauma
 Pneumothorax
 Restriction to only anesthetic intravenous
 Gastric distention
 Relative requirement for compliant lungs
Removal of flammable material from air way
b) Intermittent extubation with or without apnea:
 Intermittent extubation by the surgeon.
 Combined with spontaneous ventilation or
intermittent apnea.
 General anesthesia provided by nasal
insufflations of potent inhaled anesthetic or
by use of intravenous anesthetic agent.
Approaches to reduce the incidence of
airway fire:
Reduction of the available oxygen content:
Oxygen and nitrous are powerful oxidizer.
Reduce the inspired oxygen concentration
to less then 0.40.
Avoiding diluting oxygen with nitrous .
Dilute with helium.
Airway fire protocol
(Management of airway fire)
Communication and recognition.
Stop ventilation, remove ETT and disconnect
breathing circuit from anesthesia machine to:
 Remove flame
 Remove the retained heat in the tube
 Stop flow of enriched gas
Flood the surgical field with water.
Ventilate the patient with 100% oxygen via
face mask.
Airway fire protocol
(Management of airway fire)
Assess the damage:
 Examine the patient face and oropharynx
 Rigid bronchoscope.
 Direct laryngoscope.
Monitor the patient with pulse oximetry, serial
ABG and chest X ray.
Reintubate the patient or perform
trachestomy as needed.
Use ventilatory support, steroid and antibiotic
as needed.
Protective safety measure during laser
Warning signs
Eye protection:
 For the patient: eye should be taped closed
and covered with opaque saline swabs or
metal shield.
 For the working personals: wear safety
goggles or lens specific for the laser wave
length in use.
3. For laser plume:
 use efficient smoke evacuator at the
surgical site.
 Use special high efficiency mask.
Protective safety measure during laser
4. Skin protection:
The patient ‘skin, mucous membrane and
teeth adjacent to operative field should be
covered with saline soaked gauze.
5. Surgical drapes made of flame resistant or
waterproof material.
6. Preventive measures against fire and
explosion must be ready.
Never are cooperation and
communication between surgeon and
anesthesiologist more important than
during LASER surgery, it is the key to
managing a crisis such as air way fire
High pressure oxygen source
Venturi effect (entrainment of air).
Active insipration
Passive expiration

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