The Mine Water Project in Heerlen the Netherlands: development of a geothermal mine water pilot towards a full scale hybrid low exergy infrastructure Peter Op ‘t Veld, Bert Gilissen Huygen Engineers & Consultants Maastricht, the Netherlands Content • Mine Water Project as a pilot (1.0) • Boundary conditions buildings • Transitition to a versatile exergy based energy infrastructure (2.0) • Further developments and research • Conclusions Distribution: Low temperature (‘lowex’) H&C distribution system the primary grid mine water 1.0 – started as a pilot in 2005 Heerlerheide Buildings Heerlerheide Centre H 35…400C C R 170C 20…240C Energy station Heerlerheide Centre 2 Warm Wells HP HP Option: Regeneration of wells (by HP’s in buildings) 280C Intermediate Well Heerlen CBS - APG - ARCUS Energy stations Energy buildings stations buildings Energy stations buildings 16…180C 2 Cold Wells From a schematic approach to a LT H&C grid in practice Length 7 km Some decision parameters: • • • • • • • • • • • Length op the grid (Type of) paving Drillings (road crossings) Existing infrastructures Impact on wells Flow directions Ecology Archaeology Soil (pollution) Permits Costs Demand side: the buildings current connections to the grid Heerlen location – Heerlerheide Centre (2005 – 2012) Location Heerlerheide Centre • • • • • • 312 apartments 3800 m2 commercial buildings 2500 m2 public and cultural buildings 11500 m2 health care buildings 2200 m2 educational buildings Energy station Heerlen Centre ABP building: retrofitting, office 40.000m2 Retrofitting completed, connected 2013 CBS building: new office, 21.000m2 Completed and connected 2009 Arcus College: new school, 25.000m2 Completed and connected 2014 Boundary conditions: What is “extra” needed to make a building minewater proof/lowex (NL)? See also IEA EBC Annex 49: www.annex49.info Building Reg’s NL Practice 2014 NL Mine water Lowex Thermal insulation Envelope U = 0.37 Glazing U = 3.0 Ventilation No system requirements Air tightness n50 = 3 Emission system No requirements HVAC system/efficiency No requirements (but in EPR) Thermal insulation Envelope U = 0.26 Glazing U = 1,2 – 1,5 Ventilation 50% ME/50% MVHR Air tightness n50 < 2 Emission system Radiators HVAC system/efficiency Condensing boilers η = 95% No cooling EPC dwellings 0.6 Thermal insulation Envelope U < 0.25 Glazing U < 1.2 Ventilation MVHR η = 95% Air tightness n50 <1 Emission system Floor heating and cooling HVAC system/efficiency Mine water with heat pumps (boiler back up) Sustainable cooling EPC dwellings < 0.5 Energy Performance (EPC) dwellings 0.6 LowEx direct heating and cooling Building services: Temperature minewater: 10°C water from shallow layers high-temperature cooling by thermally activated building parts 20°C Indoor air temperature (exergy zero-level) 30°C water from deeper layers 40°C low-temperature heating by thermally activated building parts 50°C Indirect heating and cooling Building services: Temperature minewater: Additional cooling energy (heat pumps etc.) 10°C low-temperature cooling by air-conditiong water from shallow layers 20°C 30°C water from deeper layers Indoor air temperature (exergy zero-level) Additional heating energy (heat pumps etc.) 40°C medium-temperature heating by heated air 50°C Optimization by using Load Duration Curves • • • • • Dynamical buildings simulations (by TRNSYS) Temperature levels for heating, cooling and DHW Ratio RES (and HP) and conventional Balancing H and C storage Optimization transmission and ventilation losses and seasonal operation • Enlarging the ‘dead-zone’ = period without H or C demand > conflict with energy exploitation and economical feasibility! (decrease of energy demand = decrease of profits) Optimizing ratio RES/conventional by using a LD curve (location Heerlerheide) Load Duration Curve Heerlerheide Centre (buildings) 2500 optelling vermogens ruimteverwarming [watt] 2000 Vermogen energiecentrale [kW] Vermogens WP's 1500 heat supply in peaks by boilers 1000 heat supply by minewater i.c.w. heat pumps 500 dead band koelen 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 verwarmen -500 cold supply by minwwater i.c..w. heat pumps -1000 Jaar [uren] 8000 8760 Towards Mine Water 2.0: Long term maximum use of geothermal underground for sustainable heating and cooling of buildings • Energy exchange instead of energy supply: Between buildings by cluster grids Between clusters by the mine water grid Using Exergy Principles • Energy storage and regeneration of mine water reservoirs instead of depletion • Enlargement hydraulic and thermal capacity mine water system • Fully automatic control and demand driven: heat and cold supply at any time • Addition of poly generation like Bio CHP, reuse of waste heat (data center; industry), closed greenhouse, cooling towers etc. • > The mine water energy supply is the backbone for this Towards Mine Water 2.0 Return well HLN3 out of order Hot to Hot (HH2) Cluster Cold to grids Cold (HLN2) Injection wells Thot supply 28˚C HH2 and HLN2 Tcold supply 16˚C bidirectional Thot return 28˚C Tcold return 16˚C CLUSTER D Componenta-Otterveurdt HH1 HLN1 HLN3 HH2 CLUSTER A Arcus-APG CLUSTER C Weller HHC CLUSTER B CBSMaankwartier HLN2 June 2013 Example ‘Cluster D’ CLUSTER D Componenta-Otterveurdt Cluster D (north west Heerlen) • Connections: – – – – Iron foundry (industrial waste heat supply) Swimming pool Retail store Community building/school • ‘Hoovering grid’: grid with flexible temperatures – Heat: 29 – 500C – Cold: 15 – 200C • Local storage at user level – Reduction capacity heat pumps in buildings – Reducing connected power, allowing more customers on the grid – Dealing with daily fluctations H&C demand (day T amplitude) Scheme for standardized solution in cluster grids Storage for day amplitude Heat exchangers Mine water energy station Cluster grid DHW Heat pump(s) Building energy station End user Further R&D towards general application in lowex infrastructures (TKI LowEx OLEC and IEA Annex 64) Theme State of Art 1. Utilization of low exergy heat and cold at district level Only sub-optimal utilization at building level, occasionally at project level, not at district level S&T Deadlocks Development of technologies tailormade per project with only one specific energy source. System selection is considered per project as Storage only in Heat/Cold storage complex tailor-fit engineering. (aquifers) at one temperature level Limited or no application of with simple grids underground storage at different or higher temperatures. No view at combination with other low exergy flows by combination with energy flows from (other) buildings en building functions or environmental functions like ground, ground water 2. Flexibility Projects with local storage and Modifications, extensions, change of and up-scaling distribution are normally designed once sources, customers and storage and as a fixed configuration up-scaling often not possible 3. System controls Current DH&C grids are simple and don’t have advanced control systems, aimed for energy efficiency and sustainability No advanced control systems available at district level. Inertia of infrastructure, sources and storage systems is an unknown factor. Innopvations to make in LowEx OLEC 1.a Tool for planning and scenario analyses for energy infrastructure for lowex DH&C 1.b Elaboration of a number of configurations at technical and economic level for different sources, storage possibilities and temperature levels 1.c Development of underground storage at differentiated and/or higher temperatures. 1.d Possibilities for dynamical extension of hydraulic and thermal capacity of distribution grid 1.e combination with soil decontamination 2.a By standardization of configurations repetition potential is possible 2.b Modular solutions and configurations to scale size and type of buildings and lowex sources Design of a Central Management System (CMS) to link buildings, sources and storage to a ‘virtual’ energy station Further R&D towards general application in lowex infrastructures Theme 4. Planning of total system (source, storage, distribution, user) 5. Performance and performance guarantees State of Art No consideration of energy infrastructure as a Total system for energy 0 community planning Technologies and components are being designed and dimensioned and assessed separately and fragmented 6. Financing and exploitation Financial assessments and considerations are being made on project level; supply driven market with monopoly position of suppliers (utilities). Not clear who is the ‘owner’ of a storage system Performances are guarded only on component and building level (if commissioning takes place) Professionals (at all levels, blue and white collar) have only limited skills and knowledge S&T Deadlocks No vision in potential and costs modification of energy infrastructures Dynamic thermal tool and dynamic hydraulic model available but not linked yet and not user friendly And applicable for planning, not user friendly yet No clear vision of performance guarantees at system level Knowledge supply is present (Annex 49, REMINING-lowex en IDESEDU ) but not matched with current skill gaps Innopvations to make in LowEx OLEC Linking thermal and hydraulic model and making it user friendly as tool for energy planning and scenario analyses, including cost review for financial exploitation. 5.a Combination of comprehensive favourable technical configurations, design tool and a CMS will lead to better control of performances of the total system. 5.b Framework for system of integral performance guarantees 5.c Framework for training and CPD and end-terms for required skills No ‘owners’ for exploitation of 6.a Financial exploitation model addressing storage and energy supply, no view on the financial value of storage in economic opportunities and combination with renewable and lowchallenges of local exploitation of valued energy sources. Model should local energy and storage clearly underpin the value for exploitation infrastructures 6.b Involvement of innovative ESCO’s for offering total financing and exploitation models Conclusions The Mine Water project in Heerlen upgraded from a pilot system to a smart grid in heating and cooling with full scale hybrid sustainable energy structure (Mine Water 2.0) Cluster grids are a profound exergy based solution to provide energy exchange between buildings and use of waste heat By poly generation and the application of cluster grids the capacity of the mine water grid can be strongly increased Cluster grid applications are used in combination with low temperature geothermal sources (mine water) and can be applied in general with other sustainable heat and cold energy sources (e.g. waste heat from data centres and closed greenhouses) Mine Water 2.0 proves that heat pump operation with low-ex heat sources can be commercial feasible The technologies are general applicable for all types of exergy based energy infrastructure systems It is the Quality of Energy and its Management that counts!