The mine water project in Heerlen the Netherlands

Report
The Mine Water Project in Heerlen the Netherlands:
development of a geothermal mine water pilot towards a full
scale hybrid low exergy infrastructure
Peter Op ‘t Veld, Bert Gilissen
Huygen Engineers & Consultants
Maastricht, the Netherlands
Content
• Mine Water Project as a pilot (1.0)
• Boundary conditions buildings
• Transitition to a versatile exergy based energy
infrastructure (2.0)
• Further developments and research
• Conclusions
Distribution:
Low temperature (‘lowex’) H&C
distribution system
the primary grid
mine water 1.0 – started as a pilot in 2005
Heerlerheide
Buildings Heerlerheide Centre
H
35…400C
C
R
170C
20…240C
Energy station
Heerlerheide Centre
2 Warm Wells
HP
HP
Option: Regeneration of wells
(by HP’s in buildings)
280C
Intermediate Well
Heerlen CBS - APG - ARCUS
Energy
stations
Energy
buildings
stations
buildings
Energy
stations
buildings
16…180C
2 Cold Wells
From a schematic approach
to a LT H&C grid in practice
Length 7 km
Some decision parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length op the grid
(Type of) paving
Drillings (road crossings)
Existing infrastructures
Impact on wells
Flow directions
Ecology
Archaeology
Soil (pollution)
Permits
Costs
Demand side:
the buildings
current connections to the grid
Heerlen location – Heerlerheide Centre
(2005 – 2012)
Location Heerlerheide Centre
•
•
•
•
•
•
312 apartments
3800 m2 commercial buildings
2500 m2 public and cultural
buildings
11500 m2 health care buildings
2200 m2 educational buildings
Energy station
Heerlen Centre
ABP building: retrofitting,
office 40.000m2
Retrofitting completed,
connected 2013
CBS building: new office, 21.000m2
Completed and connected 2009
Arcus College: new school, 25.000m2
Completed and
connected 2014
Boundary conditions: What is “extra” needed to
make a building minewater proof/lowex (NL)?
See also IEA EBC Annex 49: www.annex49.info
Building Reg’s NL
Practice 2014 NL
Mine water Lowex
Thermal insulation
Envelope U = 0.37
Glazing U = 3.0
Ventilation
No system requirements
Air tightness
n50 = 3
Emission system
No requirements
HVAC system/efficiency
No requirements (but in
EPR)
Thermal insulation
Envelope U = 0.26
Glazing U = 1,2 – 1,5
Ventilation
50% ME/50% MVHR
Air tightness
n50 < 2
Emission system
Radiators
HVAC system/efficiency
Condensing boilers
η = 95%
No cooling
EPC dwellings
0.6
Thermal insulation
Envelope U < 0.25
Glazing U < 1.2
Ventilation
MVHR η = 95%
Air tightness
n50 <1
Emission system
Floor heating and cooling
HVAC system/efficiency
Mine water with heat
pumps (boiler back up)
Sustainable cooling
EPC dwellings
< 0.5
Energy Performance
(EPC) dwellings
0.6
LowEx direct heating and cooling
Building services:
Temperature minewater:
10°C
water from shallow layers
high-temperature cooling by thermally activated building parts
20°C
Indoor air temperature (exergy zero-level)
30°C
water from deeper layers
40°C
low-temperature heating by thermally activated building parts
50°C
Indirect heating and cooling
Building services:
Temperature minewater:
Additional cooling energy (heat
pumps etc.)
10°C
low-temperature cooling by air-conditiong
water from shallow layers
20°C
30°C
water from deeper layers
Indoor air temperature (exergy zero-level)
Additional heating energy
(heat pumps etc.)
40°C
medium-temperature heating by heated air
50°C
Optimization by using
Load Duration Curves
•
•
•
•
•
Dynamical buildings simulations (by TRNSYS)
Temperature levels for heating, cooling and DHW
Ratio RES (and HP) and conventional
Balancing H and C storage
Optimization transmission and ventilation losses and
seasonal operation
• Enlarging the ‘dead-zone’ = period without H or C demand
> conflict with energy exploitation and economical
feasibility! (decrease of energy demand = decrease of
profits)
Optimizing ratio RES/conventional by
using a LD curve (location Heerlerheide)
Load Duration Curve Heerlerheide Centre (buildings)
2500
optelling vermogens ruimteverwarming [watt]
2000
Vermogen energiecentrale [kW]
Vermogens WP's
1500
heat supply in peaks by
boilers
1000
heat supply by minewater i.c.w. heat
pumps
500
dead band
koelen
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
verwarmen
-500
cold supply by minwwater i.c..w.
heat pumps
-1000
Jaar [uren]
8000
8760
Towards Mine Water 2.0:
Long term maximum use of geothermal underground
for sustainable heating and cooling of buildings
• Energy exchange instead of energy supply:
 Between buildings by cluster grids
 Between clusters by the mine water grid
 Using Exergy Principles
• Energy storage and regeneration of mine water reservoirs
instead of depletion
• Enlargement hydraulic and thermal capacity mine water
system
• Fully automatic control and demand driven: heat and cold
supply at any time
• Addition of poly generation like Bio CHP, reuse of waste
heat (data center; industry), closed greenhouse, cooling
towers etc.
• > The mine water energy supply is the backbone for this
Towards Mine Water 2.0
Return well HLN3
out of order
Hot to Hot (HH2)
Cluster
Cold to grids
Cold (HLN2)
Injection
wells
Thot supply
28˚C
HH2
and
HLN2
Tcold
supply
16˚C
bidirectional
Thot return 28˚C
Tcold return 16˚C
CLUSTER D
Componenta-Otterveurdt
HH1
HLN1
HLN3
HH2
CLUSTER A
Arcus-APG
CLUSTER C
Weller HHC
CLUSTER B
CBSMaankwartier
HLN2
June 2013
Example ‘Cluster D’
CLUSTER D
Componenta-Otterveurdt
Cluster D (north west Heerlen)
• Connections:
–
–
–
–
Iron foundry (industrial waste heat supply)
Swimming pool
Retail store
Community building/school
• ‘Hoovering grid’: grid with flexible temperatures
– Heat: 29 – 500C
– Cold: 15 – 200C
• Local storage at user level
– Reduction capacity heat pumps in buildings
– Reducing connected power, allowing more customers on the grid
– Dealing with daily fluctations H&C demand (day T amplitude)
Scheme for standardized solution in
cluster grids
Storage for day amplitude
Heat exchangers
Mine water energy station
Cluster
grid
DHW
Heat pump(s)
Building energy station
End user
Further R&D towards general application
in lowex infrastructures
(TKI LowEx OLEC and IEA Annex 64)
Theme
State of Art
1. Utilization
of low exergy
heat and cold
at district
level
Only sub-optimal utilization at building
level, occasionally at project level, not
at district level
S&T Deadlocks
Development of technologies tailormade per project with only one
specific energy source. System
selection is considered per project as
Storage only in Heat/Cold storage
complex tailor-fit engineering.
(aquifers) at one temperature level
Limited or no application of
with simple grids
underground storage at different or
higher temperatures.
No view at combination with other
low exergy flows by combination with
energy flows from (other) buildings en
building functions or environmental
functions like ground, ground water
2. Flexibility Projects with local storage and
Modifications, extensions, change of
and up-scaling distribution are normally designed once sources, customers and storage and
as a fixed configuration
up-scaling often not possible
3. System
controls
Current DH&C grids are simple and
don’t have advanced control systems,
aimed for energy efficiency and
sustainability
No advanced control systems
available at district level. Inertia of
infrastructure, sources and storage
systems is an unknown factor.
Innopvations to make in LowEx OLEC
1.a Tool for planning and scenario analyses
for energy infrastructure for lowex DH&C
1.b Elaboration of a number of
configurations at technical and economic
level for different sources, storage
possibilities and temperature levels
1.c Development of underground storage at
differentiated and/or higher temperatures.
1.d Possibilities for dynamical extension of
hydraulic and thermal capacity of
distribution grid
1.e combination with soil decontamination
2.a By standardization of configurations
repetition potential is possible
2.b Modular solutions and configurations to
scale size and type of buildings and lowex
sources
Design of a Central Management System
(CMS) to link buildings, sources and storage
to a ‘virtual’ energy station
Further R&D towards general application
in lowex infrastructures
Theme
4. Planning
of total
system
(source,
storage,
distribution,
user)
5.
Performance
and
performance
guarantees
State of Art
No consideration of energy
infrastructure as a Total system for
energy 0 community planning
Technologies and components are being
designed and dimensioned and assessed
separately and fragmented
6. Financing
and
exploitation
Financial assessments and
considerations are being made on
project level; supply driven market with
monopoly position of suppliers (utilities).
Not clear who is the ‘owner’ of a storage
system
Performances are guarded only on
component and building level (if
commissioning takes place)
Professionals (at all levels, blue and
white collar) have only limited skills and
knowledge
S&T Deadlocks
No vision in potential and costs
modification of energy infrastructures
Dynamic thermal tool and dynamic
hydraulic model available but not
linked yet and not user friendly
And applicable for planning, not user
friendly yet
No clear vision of performance
guarantees at system level
Knowledge supply is present
(Annex 49, REMINING-lowex en IDESEDU ) but not matched with current
skill gaps
Innopvations to make in LowEx OLEC
Linking thermal and hydraulic model and
making it user friendly as tool for energy
planning and scenario analyses, including
cost review for financial exploitation.
5.a Combination of comprehensive
favourable technical configurations, design
tool and a CMS will lead to better control of
performances of the total system.
5.b Framework for system of integral
performance guarantees
5.c Framework for training and CPD and
end-terms for required skills
No ‘owners’ for exploitation of
6.a Financial exploitation model addressing
storage and energy supply, no view on the financial value of storage in
economic opportunities and
combination with renewable and lowchallenges of local exploitation of
valued energy sources. Model should
local energy and storage
clearly underpin the value for exploitation
infrastructures
6.b Involvement of innovative ESCO’s for
offering total financing and exploitation
models
Conclusions
 The Mine Water project in Heerlen upgraded from a pilot system to a
smart grid in heating and cooling with full scale hybrid sustainable
energy structure (Mine Water 2.0)
 Cluster grids are a profound exergy based solution to provide
energy exchange between buildings and use of waste heat
 By poly generation and the application of cluster grids the capacity
of the mine water grid can be strongly increased
 Cluster grid applications are used in combination with low
temperature geothermal sources (mine water) and can be applied in
general with other sustainable heat and cold energy sources (e.g.
waste heat from data centres and closed greenhouses)
 Mine Water 2.0 proves that heat pump operation with low-ex heat
sources can be commercial feasible
 The technologies are general applicable for all types of exergy
based energy infrastructure systems
 It is the Quality of Energy and its Management that counts!

similar documents