ECR MarathonBattery

Report
Marathon Battery
Cold Spring, NY
CERCLA Cleanup
Marathon Site
Project Goals
Resources
Project Description
Procedures
Competitive Analysis
Schedules & Status
Technology
Related Documents
3/17/2015
W. Fish, Portland State University
Site Description
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On the Hudson River in NY; Two
components:
East Foundry Cove Marsh (EFCM)
Constitution Marsh
3/17/2015
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W. Fish, Portland State University
Click for Details
Site Map
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East Foundry Cove Marsh
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History: US Army
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1952: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Constructed
1953, under Contract with the Army Signal Corps,
Sonotone Corporation operated plant to produce
nickel-cadmium batteries for use in the Nike missile
program
Run under Army ownership 1953-1962; declared
“excess proprty in 1962.
3/17/2015

W. Fish, Portland State University
Click for Data Sheet
Private Owners
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1962: U.S. sold it to Sonotone
Corporation.
1967: Sonotone Corporation became a
wholly-owned subsidiary of Clevite
Corporation
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W. Fish, Portland State University
Marathon
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1969, Clevite Corporation Merged with
Gould, Inc.
1969, Gould, Inc. sold the Plant to
Business Fund, Inc.; later changed its
name to Marathon Battery Company
(MBC)
MBC operated the plant until March
1979.
3/17/2015
W. Fish, Portland State University
After the Battery Era
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Plant inactive from 3/79 until 11/80
Battery manufacturing equipment
removed and shipped to an MBC plant
in Waco, Texas
Sold to the current owner, Merchandise
Dynamics, incorporated, for use as a
book storage facility
3/17/2015

W. Fish, Portland State University
Click for Details
Contaminants of Concern
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Cadmium: Cd
Toxic to humans, animals and plants
Carcinogenic
Waste stream had huge amounts of Cd,
mostly as Cd hydroxide (10’s-100’s
mg/L)
Also caustic wastes (pH 12-14)
3/17/2015
W. Fish, Portland State University
Original Wastewater
Treatment System
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A lift station and piping for transfer of all
process wastewater into the Cold Spring
sewer (100,000-200,000 gal/day)
Discharged directly into the Hudson River
Bypass Valve Was Installed
When the Lift Station Was Shut down or
Overloaded, direct Gravity Discharge Could
Be Made into a Storm Sewer
3/17/2015

W. Fish, Portland State University
Click for Detailed
Schedule
Discharges to EFCM
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High dissolved solids and pH 12-14 of
the effluent resulted in extreme fouling
within the pump and piping
Pumps required shut down and
maintenance
Bypass valve was opened and the flow
diverted to EFCM about twice a week
3/17/2015
W. Fish, Portland State University
Cadmium Load:
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Approximately 50,000 kg
(over 52 tons) of cadmium may
have been discharged to the
cove during the life of the
plant
About half the metal purchased
did not make in into batteries
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New Sewage Plant
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1965: New York State Department of Health
said Cold Spring must build sewage treatment
plant
Battery Plant effluent could not be handled:
too toxic
Sonotone ordered to disconnect from sewer
Entire waste flow diverted to storm sewer
USACE (1966) told company to quit
discharging to the Hudson
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Attempts at Treatment
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January 1967: NY Dept of Health
advised Sonotone it was in violation
Plant given Jan 1, 1970 deadline to
comply with state discharge regulation
Sonotone installed treatment equipment
Never really worked, Cd kept on flowing
NY found lots of Cd in marsh, river
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70 Civ. 4110
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Judgement of Federal Court
Suit brought under Federal Water
Pollution Control Administration against
Marathon (pre-EPA)
Enforcement then shifted to new EPA
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Relief Sought by U.S.
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Permanent injunction against further
discharge of Cd and other metals into
Foundry Cove
Demanded removal of Cd in sediments
Sept. 1971: Complaint amended,
named Sonotone, Cleveite and Gould as
additional defendants
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Final Judgment (70 Civ.4110)
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June 1972: Remove all sediment with
Cd >900 ppm (mg/kg)
1971: Discharge was stopped; routed
back to sewer after treatment
1972-1973: Hydraulic dredging by
GOULD
Design: Dr. Harry Gregor, Columbia U.
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1st Dredging Operation
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Hydraulic dredging of “hot” areas
Dr. Gregor instructed crew to remove
all soft sediment from outfall area (~2-4
ft deep)
Gravel base fairly clean
In Cove, Gregor delineated with stakes
22 acres with Cd > 1000 ppm
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On-Site Soil Handling
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Spoils dewatered in parking lot inside a
temporary dike
dewatering leaked all over the place
Effluent settle overnight, discharge to
marsh
Solids mixed with limestone, scored in
underground vault on site
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Areas Dredged
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Outfall area
Channel leading to the marsh
Cove:Winter ’72 ice uprooted stakes
and Gregor had to redelineate and
finish in spring 1973
About 4000 cu.m. stored in vault
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“Satisfaction”
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April 24, 1974: US Attorney issues
“satisfaction of judgment”
Site is off the hook…or isi it?
Agreement included monitoring by NYS
Dept. of Environmental Conservation
(NYSDEC)
Studies by NYSDEC, EPA, NYU
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Whoops, There it Is
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Studies showed much of area was still
> 900 mg/kg
Channel area was recontaminated
In fact in 1973 Gregor had to have
channel redredged, but he did not
worry about surrounding marsh
Only about 10% of Cd had been
removed
3/17/2015
Dr. Theo Kneip, NYU
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1974: Found the recontamination
Found the 1000 ppm zone was 50%
larger than Gregor’s zone just one year
before
>50,000 ppm within the area dredged
the prior year! (= 5% Cd by weight)
135,000 pmm near the outfall
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Cd Data of Kneip et al. 1974
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MBC Internal Memos:
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“He told Jack that he was working on a
Federal grant and, as a matter of
courtesy wanted us to know the Cd
background level of the Hudson River is
higher in many cases after the dredging
than before”
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MBC Internal Memos
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[10 days later] “At any rate he now
reports increased Cd levels in the cove
and the river due to the dredging. This
does not necessarily bother or surprise
us, since this was our prediction and
which was basically ignored by the Final
Jedgment [sic].”
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CERCLA
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1980: CERCLA Passed
1981: First National Priority List (NPL)
Prepared
Guess what was one of the first sites
proposed for the interim NPL?
1983 went on Final NPL
Also OSHA found high Cd dust inside
book warehouse
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CERCLA Units
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1986 Record of Decision (ROD):
Three “Operating Units” (OU’s)
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Area I: EFCM & Constitution Marsh
Area II: Plant, grounds, vault
Area III: Cove itself and Hudson
RI/FS Findings
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~8% of EFCM had >1000 mg/kg Cd
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Sediment Cd Profiles
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Cd Accumulation in Biota
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High levels of Cd found in a number of
organisms (e.g., Limnodrilus hoffmeisterii)
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Cd Accumulation
in Muskrats
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Muskrats in
Cold Spring
Exhibit Odd
behavior
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbh9c0noR4s
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ROD Plan: 1986
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Dredge Hudson near old sewer outfall
Dredge Cove and EFCM, dewater, haul
offsite
Re-vegetate EFCM
Leave Constitution Marsh alone
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Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)
2 other RODS issued ‘88, ‘89
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Final Consent Decrees
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Marathon, Gould, USACE are
Responsible Parties (RP’s)
Total cost $109 million
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Gould $57M
ACOE $43 M
Marathon $9M
Insurance paying much of
Gould and MBC
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Dredging Began 1993
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Dredging removed 55,000 cu.yd sediment
to depth of 1 ft.
Assumed to get about 95% of Cd this way
Unlike 1972-73, did not shoot for a specific
target concentration
Dredging completed in 1994
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Marsh Cleanup
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1800’ dike, 6-7 ft high
31,000 cu.yd soil excavated, treated,
shipped of site
Reconstructed and revegetated the
marsh
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Marsh Cleanup
Foundry
Cove
Treatment
Dike
RR
Line
Dike
Drainage
Stored
Sludge
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Dewatering
Pond
Rail
Transfer
Sediment Cd “Fixation”
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Rail Line for Removal
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DELISTING
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Declared
finished and
delisted from
NPL, October
1996
3/17/2015

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