marathon preparation

Report
Don’t Hit the Wall:
Nutrition 101 for the Marathon
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Carbohydrate –
A Runner’s Friend
• Spares muscle glycogen
• Consume before, during and after long runs
• Not all created equally
– Simple vs. complex
– Enriched vs. whole grain
• Inadequate carbohydrate intake can lead to:
– Protein/muscle breakdown
– Decreased ability to burn body fat
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Protein –
Why Do We Need It?
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Immune function
Hormone production
Repair damaged muscle tissue (foot strike)
Optimize carbohydrate storage in muscles –
eat carbohydrate + protein after long runs
• Help stabilize blood sugar levels when
consumed with a carbohydrate meal/snack
Gibala, MJ. Protein Nutrition and Endurance Exercise: What Does Science Say? Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library.
Accessed 3/06/07. Available: http://www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleid=719&level=3&topic=2
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Fat – Friend or Foe?
• Unlimited storage capacity – 150 lb lean athlete
may have 60,000 calories of stored fat
• Fat not used for energy is easily stored as body fat
• Fat is not a fast or efficient source of energy –
sluggishness during runs if too much
• During exercise – trained vs. untrained people and
women vs. men burn a higher % calories as fat
• Some fat in the diet is necessary to absorb some
nutrients, vitamins and anti-oxidants (carotenoids).
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Choose Healthy Fats
Choose These:
• Avocado
• Canola oil
• Fatty fish – salmon
• Flax seeds
• Natural nut butters
• Nuts, seeds
• Olives, olive oil
Avoid These:
• Saturated fat
• High fat animal and
dairy products
• Coconut oil
• Palm, palm kernal oil
• Trans fats – partially
hydrogenated oils
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Get That Fluid On Board!
• Dehydration can start within 15-20 minutes
• Fluid intake may not keep up with
absorption rate – maximum repletion rate is
about 4 cups per hour
• Even a 1% fluid loss impairs performance
• Thirst may not “kick in” until 2% fluid loss
– or 3 lbs (6 cups) for a 150-lb person
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Signs of Dehydration
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Thirst, dry mouth
Weakness, fatigue
Nausea, vomiting
High body temperature
Muscle cramps – legs
Dizziness, confusion
Weak, rapid heart rate
Lack of coordination &
judgment
Horswill, CA. Signs of dehydration. Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Sports Science Library.
Accessed 3/7/07. Available: www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleid=428
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Hydrate Morning,
Noon and Night
• Plain water is OK for <60 minutes of exercise
• Sports beverages (fluid, carbohydrate and sodium)
good for >60 minutes of exercise
• Carry fluid with you at all times!
• Pre- and During Run or Race:
– Drink at least 16 oz. (2 cups) fluid 1-2 hours before run
– Drink 6-12 oz. fluid every 15-20 minutes during run
• Post-Run or Race:
– Drink at least 16-24 oz. (2-3 cups) fluid per pound lost
– Drink until urine is pale or clear
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of
Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.
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Daily Eating, Daily Fuel
• Eat regularly, every 3 to 4 hours
• Eat balanced meals – grain/starch, protein,
fruit/vegetable, healthy fat
• Choose whole grains vs. white enriched
• Fuel your body with nourishing food!
• Experiment during training!
• Do not try something new on race day!
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The “Last Meal” Meal Before the Marathon
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High carbohydrate – spare muscle glycogen
Easily digestible – low fat, protein, fiber
Size of meal depends on time before start
Lots of fluid – at least 2 cups per hour
Avoid alcohol; limit caffeine and sodium
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of
Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.
2
What About
Carbohydrate Loading?
• Carbohydrate loading - a technique used to load
the muscles up with glycogen, which historically
involved more drastic measures
• Try a “modified” version:
– Taper or reduce run-training during the week preceding
the marathon
– Continue daily carbohydrate-rich food intake during the
week preceding the marathon
– Consume carbohydrate-rich foods and/or beverages
during marathon
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Fuel-Up
During the Marathon
• Mostly simple, some complex carbohydrates
(spare muscle glycogen)
• Easily digestible and well-tolerated (trial & error)
• Sports beverage containing water, sugar (7%),
sodium and potassium
• Sports drinks, energy gels, energy bars
• Avoid anything too concentrated, like undiluted
juice or soda
• Avoid fructose as the first ingredient
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine:
Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.
2
Recovery Meals
• First 4-6 hours are crucial for optimal recovery
and repair.
• 15 minutes post – high carb beverage
• 2 hours post – high carb snack, with a little
protein, if possible
• 4 hours post – high carb meal with moderate
protein
• Choose carbs with high glycemic index for
maximal muscle glycogen synthesis
• Drink until urine is pale or clear!
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of
Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.
2
Vitamins and Minerals
• Athletes who are at risk for inadequate intake:
– Restrict energy intake/severe weight loss practices
– Eliminate one or more food groups from diet
– Consume high carb, low vit/min-dense foods
• Women more likely to lack calcium, iron and zinc
• Some vitamins and minerals compete with each
other for absorption (mega doses)
• Insurance policy – daily multi-vitamin/mineral,
plus extra calcium for women
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of
Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. JADA 2000;100(12):1543-1566.
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Weight Loss Success
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Regular physical activity
Moderate reductions in calorie intake
Healthy eating patterns and behaviors
Keep records of food intake, physical
activity, and goals
• Be mentally ready and committed
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Keep the Fire Burning!
• Eat often, every 3 to 4 hours
• Eat enough to support life!
• Be physically active most
days of the week (run/walk)
• Pump some iron to help build
muscle
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You Can Do It!
• Is your mental tape
supportive and friendly?

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